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Bartering in Psychotherapy:
Ethical and Clinical Considerations

6 CE Credit Hours - Online Course - $60.00

Developed by Ofer Zur, Ph.D.

Board Approvals for Psychologists, LMFTs, SWs, Counselors, & Nurses

Course fulfills the California and other states' ethics and law requirements.
Course may qualify for insurance discount. Check with your insurer.


Simply follow these steps:

1. Sign up securely online.
2. Read/watch articles & video.

3. Submit evaluation & post-test.
4. Print your certificate.

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Bartering in Therapy This intermediate-level course explores the complexities of bartering in the context of boundary crossings and dual relationships in psychotherapy.The course maps types of bartering (i.e. goods, services), discusses the relationships between and definitions of bartering, boundary crossing and dual relationships, explores the applications to poor clients and to those from different cultures, provides bartering vignettes, reviews the ethics codes on bartering, outlines the objections to bartering and offers clinical and ethical guidelines for employing, specifically, bartering and, more generally, boundary crossing and dual relationships.

The course consists of one short introductory video (transcript provided) and five articles. The first three articles discuss the complexities and types of bartering. The next article provides the more general context of psychotherapeutic boundaries in which the discussion of boundaries is taking place. The followig article critically reviews the different Professional Associations' Codes of Ethics on Bartering in psychotherapy. Finally, the last article provides updates and listing of online resources.


Educational Objectives

    This course will teach the participant to:
  • Summarize the complexities and potential risks and benefits involved in bartering arrangements.
  • List the different types of bartering arrangements.
  • Define and explain boundary crossings, boundary violations and dual relationships in psychotherapy.
  • Utilize guidelines for handling bartering, dual relationships and boundaries in therapy.
  • Explain the relationships between bartering, boundary crossings and dual relationships.
  • Outline what the different codes of ethics state in regard to bartering.
  • Summarize updates of the ethics codes and California law on bartering and offer guidelines for ethical decision making about bartering in therapy.
  • Utilize tools to make clinical and ethical decisions with regard to bartering, boundary crossings and dual relationships.

Course Syllabus:

  • Evolution of Bartering
  • Opposition to Bartering
  • Bartering, Boundary Crossing and Dual Relationships
  • Types of Bartering: Goods, Services, Part of a Pro Bono or Low Fee, Others
  • Arranging Bartering: Direct Communication, Trade Associations, Online Bartering
  • Bartering and the Codes of Ethics
  • Case Studies
  • Beyond Risk Management
  • References
  • Guidelines for Bartering in Psychotherapy
  • California Regulations on Bartering in Psychotherapy
  • Boundaries and Dual Relationships in Psychotherapy:
    • Purpose and Definition
    • Dual Relationships - Key Points
    • Boundaries - Key Points
    • Dual Relationships - Guidelines
    • References to Online Articles and to Online Ethics Codes
    • Arguments Against Dual Relationships and their Rebuttals

Author's Bio


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