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Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)


This resource page is part of three online courses:
Holistic Psychotherapy
Mindfulness & Meditation in Psychotherapeutic Practice
Meditation & Psychotherapy

and is also available as part of a Certificate Program:
Complementary & Alternative Medicine (35 CE, save $134)

CE Credits for Psychologists. CE Credits (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.


General Resources on CAM

Ethics & CAM

Nutrition & Mental Health

Animal Assisted Therapy

Critique of CAM & Differentiating Science from Psuedo-Science

Meditation, Mindfulness & Mental Health

Online Articles


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Organizations & Professional Associations

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Mindfulness Research and Treatment Centers

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Mindfulness Practitioners

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  • Albeniz, A. & Holmes, J. (2000) Meditation: concepts, effects and uses in therapy. International Journal of Psychotherapy, 5, 49–58.
  • Austin, J. (2006) Zen–Brain Reflections. MIT Press.
  • Baer, R. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10:125–143.
  • Barnhofer, T, Crane, C, Hargus, E, Amarasinghe, M, Winder, R and Williams, JMG. (2009). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a treatment for chronic depression: A preliminary study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47:366–373. [PubMed: 19249017]
  • Bedard, M, Felteau, M, Gibbons, C and Klein, R. (2005). A mindfulness-based intervention to improve quality of life among individuals who sustained traumatic brain injuries: One-year follow-up. The Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 23:8–13.
  • Bedard, M, Felteau, M, Gibbons, C, Klein, R, Mazmanian, D, Fedyk, K, Klein, R, Richardson, J, Parkinson, W and Minthorn-Biggs, MB. (2003). Pilot evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention to improve quality of life among individuals who sustained traumatic brain injuries. Disability and Rehabilitation: An International, Multidisciplinary Journal, 25:722–731.
  • Bishop, SR. (2002). What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic Medicine, 64:71–83. [PubMed: 11818588]
  • Bishop, M, Lau, S, Shapiro, L, Carlson, ND, Anderson, J, Carmody, Segal ZV, Abbey, S, Speca, M, Velting, D and Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11:230–241.
  • Bogels, SM, Sijbers, GFVM and Voncken, M. (2006). Mindfulness and task concentration training for social phobia: A pilot study. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20:33–44.
  • Bondolfi, G., Jermann, F., Van der Linden, M., Gex_Fabry, M., Bizzini, L., Weber Rouget, B., Myers-Arrazola, L., Gonzalez, C., Segal, Z., Aubry, J.M. & Bertschy, G. (in press). Depression relapse prophylaxis with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Replication and extension in a French speaking sample. Journal of Affective Disorders.
  • Brown, D. P. & Engler, J. (1986) The stages of mindfulness meditation: a validation study. In Transformations of Consciousness (eds K. Wilber, J. Engler & D. P. Brown), pp. 161–191. Shambala Press.
  • Brown, K. & Ryan, R. (2003) The benefits of being present mindfulness and its role in psychological well being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.
  • Brown, K. W. & Ryan, R. M. (2004) Perils and promise in defining and measuring mindfulness. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 242–248.
  • Butler, W.E. (1998). How to Read the Aura and Practice Psychometry, Telepathy, and Clairvoyance. Merrimac, Mass: Destiny Publishers.
  • Carlson, LE and Garland, SN. (2005). Impact of mindfulness based stress reduction on sleep, mood, stress, and fatigue symptoms in cancer outpatients. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12:278–285. [PubMed: 16262547]
  • Carlson, LE, Speca, M, Faris, P and Patel, KD. (2007). One year pre-post intervention follow-up of psychological, immune, endocrine and blood pressure outcomes of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in breast and prostate cancer patients. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21:1038–1049.
  • Carlson, LE, Speca, M, Patel, K and Goodey, E. (2003). Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress, and immune parameters in breast and prostate cancer outpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65:571–581. [PubMed: 12883107]
  • Carlson, LE, Ursuliak, Z, Goodey, E, Angen, M and Speca, M. (2001). The effects of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients: 6-month follow-up. Supportive Care in Cancer, 9:112–123. [PubMed: 11305069]
  • Carmody, J and Baer, RA. (2009). How long does a mindfulness-based stress reduction program need to be? A review of class contact hours and effect sizes for psychological distress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65:627–638. [PubMed: 19309694]
  • Craigie, MA, Rees, CS and Marsh, A. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary evaluation. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36:553–568.
  • Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., et al (2003) Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564–570.
  • Dobkin, PL. (2008). Mindfulness-based stress reduction: What processes are at work? Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14:8–16. [PubMed: 18243937]
  • Evans, S, Ferrando, S, Findler, M, Stowell, C, Smart, C and Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22:716–721. [PubMed: 17765453]
  • Farb, N. Anderson, A., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D. & Segal, Z.V. (in press). Mindfulness training alters neural response to sad mood provocation in a mixed clinical sample. Emotion.
  • Farb, N., Segal, Z., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D. & Anderson, A. (2007). Mindfulness training reveals dissociable neural modes of self-reference. Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2, 313-322.
  • Finucane, A and Mercer, S. (2006). An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry, 6:1–14. [PubMed: 16396684]
  • Garland, SN, Carlson, LE, Cook, S, Lansdell, L and Speca, M. (2007). A non-randomized comparison of mindfulness-based stress reduction and healing arts programs for facilitating post-traumatic growth and spirituality in cancer outpatients. Supportive Care in Cancer, 15:949–961. [PubMed: 17611782]
  • Germer, C. K. (2005) What is mindfulness? In Mindfulness and Psychotherapy (eds C. K. Germer, R. D. Siegel & P. R. Fulton), pp. 1–27. Guilford Press.
  • Goleman, D. (1988) The Meditative Mind. Putnam.
  • Grossman, P, Niemann, L, Schmid, S and Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57:35–43. [PubMed: 15256293]
  • Grossman, P, Tiefenthaler-Gilmer, U, Raysz, A and Kesper, U. (2007). Mindfulness training as an intervention for fibromyalgia: Evidence of post-intervention and 3-year follow up benefits in well-being. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76:226–233. [PubMed: 17570961]
  • Hanh, T. N. (1991) The Miracle of Mindfulness. Rider.
  • Hayes, SC, Luoma, JB, Bond, FW, Masuda, A and Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44:1–25. [PubMed: 16300724]
  • Hayes, SC. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy, 35:639–665.
  • Hofmann, SG and Asmundson, GJ. (2008). Acceptance and mindfulness-based therapy: New wave or old hat? Clinical Psychology Review, 28:1–16. [PubMed: 17904260]
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4:33–47. [PubMed: 7042457]
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go there you are. New York: Hyperion.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994) Mindfulness Meditation for Everyday Life. Piatkus Books.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10:144–156.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J, Massion, AO, Kristeller, J and Peterson, LG. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149:936–943. [PubMed: 1609875]
  • Kenny, MA and Williams, JMG. (2007). Treatment-resistant depressed patients show a good response to Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 7;45:617–625. [PubMed: 16797486]
  • Kieviet-Stijnen, A, Visser, A, Garssen, B and Hudig, W. (2008). Mindfulness-based stress reduction training for oncology patients: Patients' appraisal and changes in well-being. Patient Education and Counseling, 72:436–442. [PubMed: 18657376]
  • Kim, YW, Lee, SH, Choi, TK, Suh, SY, Kim, B, Kim, CM, Cho, SJ, Kim, MJ, Yook, K, Ryu, M, Song, SK and Yook, KH. (2009). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as an adjuvant to pharmacotherapy in patients with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 26:601–606. [PubMed: 19242985]
  • Kingston, T, Dooley, B, Bates, A, Lawlor, E and Malone, K. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for residual depressive symptoms. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 80:193–203.
  • Koszycki, D, Benger, M, Shlik, J and Bradwejn, J. (2007). Randomized trial of a meditation-based stress reduction program and cognitive behavior therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45:2518–2526. [PubMed: 17572382]
  • Kreitzer, MJ, Gross, CR, Ye, X, Russas, V and Treesak, C. (2005). Longitudinal impact of mindfulness meditation on illness burden in solid-organ transplant recipients. Progress in Transplantation, 15:166–172. [PubMed: 16013466]
  • Kristeller, JL and Hallett, CB. (1999). An exploratory study of a meditation-based intervention for binge eating disorder. Journal of Health Psychology, 4:357–363.
  • Kuyken W, Byford S, Taylor RS, Watkins E, Holden E, White K, Barrett B, Byng R, Evans A, Mullan E, Teasdale JD. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to prevent relapse in recurrent depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 966-78.
  • Lau, M, Bishop, S., Segal, Z.V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. & Carlson, L. Shapiro, S., Carmody, J., Abbey, S. & Devins, J. (2006). The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 1445-1467.
  • Ledesma, D and Kumano, H. (2008). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cancer: A meta-analysis. Psycho-Oncology, 18:571–579. [PubMed: 19023879]
  • Lee, SH, Ahn, SC, Lee, YJ, Choi, TK, Yook, KH and Suh, SY. (2007). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress management program as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in patients with anxiety disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 62:189–95. [PubMed: 17270577]
  • Lengacher, CA, Johnson-Mallard, V, Post-White, J, Moscoso, MS, Jacobsen, PB, Klein, TW, Widen, RH, Fitzgerald, SG, Shelton, MM, Barta, M, Goodman, M, Cox, CE and Kip, KE. (in press). Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for survivors of breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology.
  • Lush, E, Salmon, P, Floyd, A, Studts, JL, Weissbecker, I and Sephton, SE. (2009). Mindfulness meditation for symptom reduction in fibromyalgia: Psychophysiological correlates. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 16:200–207. [PubMed: 19277851]
  • Ma, S.H., & Teasdale, J.D. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: Replication and exploration of differential relapse prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 31-40.
  • Mace, C. (2007). Mindfulness in psychotherapy: an introduction. Adv. Psychiatr. Treat. 13: 147-154. Retrieved 7-1-11.
  • Mace, C. (2006a) Long-term impacts of mindfulness practice on wellbeing: new findings from qualitative research. In Dimensions of Well-being. Research and Intervention (ed. A. Delle Fave), pp. 455–469. Franco Angeli.
  • Mace, C. (2006b) Mindfulness and technologies of healing: lessons from Western practice. Proceedings of Second Kyoto Conference on Buddhism and Psychotherapy (eds O. Ancho, M. Miller & D. Mathers), pp. 151–161. Hanazono University.
  • Mace, C. (2007) Mindfulness and Mental Health. Brunner-Routledge.
  • Mackenzie, MJ, Carlson, LE and Speca, M. (2005). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) in oncology: Rationale and review. Evidence-based Integrative Medicine, 2:139–145.
  • Matchim, Y and Armer, JM. (2007). Measuring the psychological impact of mindfulness meditation on health among patients with cancer: A literature review. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34:1059–1066. [PubMed: 17878133]
  • Melbourne Academic Mindfulness Interest Group. (2006). Mindfulness-based psychotherapies: A review of conceptual foundations, empirical evidence and practical considerations. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40:285–294. [PubMed: 16620310]
  • Meyers, L. (2007). Serenity Now. Retrieved 3-15-12.
  • Miklowitz, D. Alatiq, Y., Goodwin, G., Geddes, J., Dimidjian, S., Hauser, M., & Williams, M (2009). A pilot study of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder. Internation Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 4, 373-382.
  • Moustgaard, A. (2005). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for stroke survivors: An application of a novel intervention. Unpublished dissertation
  • Murray, B. (2002). Finding the Peace within Us. Retrieved 3-15-12.
  • Ott, MJ, Norris, RL and Bauer-Wu, SM. (2006). Mindfulness meditation for oncology patients: A discussion and critical review. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 5:98–108. [PubMed: 16685074]
  • Powers, MB, Zum, Vörde Sive, Vörding, MB and Emmelkamp. PM. (2009). Acceptance and commitment therapy: A meta-analytic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78:73–80. [PubMed: 19142046]
  • Pradhan, EK, Baumgarten, M, Langenberg, P, Handwerger, B, Gilpin, AK, Magyari, T, Hochberg, MC and Berman, BM. (2007). Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 57:1134–42. [PubMed: 17907231]
  • Praissman, S. (2008). Mindfulness-based stress reduction: A literature review and clinicians' guide. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 20:212–216. [PubMed: 18387018]
  • Ramel, W, Goldin, PR, Carmona, PE and McQuaid, JR. (2004). The effects of mindfulness meditation on cognitive processes and affect in patients with past depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28:433–455.
  • Ree, MJ and Craigie, MA. (2007). Outcomes following mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in a heterogeneous sample of adult outpatients. Behaviour Change, 24:70–86.
  • Reibel, DK, Greeson, JM, Brainard, GC and Rosenzweig, S. (2001). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health-related quality of life in a heterogeneous patient population. General Hospital Psychiatry, 23:183–192. [PubMed: 11543844]
  • Rosenzweig, S, Greeson, JM, Reibel, DK, Green, JS, Jasser, SA and Beasley, D. (in press). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for chronic pain conditions: Variation in treatment outcomes and role of home meditation practice. Journal of Psychosomatic Research.
  • Rosenzweig, S, Reibel, DK, Greeson, JM, Edman, JS, Jasser, SA, McMearty, KD and Goldstein, BJ. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 13(5):36–38. [PubMed: 17900040]
  • Sagula, D and Rice, KG. (2004). The effectiveness of mindfulness training on the grieving process and emotional well-being of chronic pain patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 11:333–342.
  • Salmon, P, Lush, E, Jablonski, M and Sephton, SE. (2009). Yoga and mindfulness: Clinical aspects of an ancient mind/body practice. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16:59–72.
  • Santorelli, S.F. (1999). Heal thy self: lessons on mindfulness in medicine. New York: Random House/Bell Tower.
  • Schulte, CF. (2007). Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on the psychological and behavioral symptoms of hypothyroidism. Unpublished dissertation
  • Segal, ZV, Williams, JMG and Teasdale, JD. (2002). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: A New Approach to Preventing Relapse. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Sephton, SE, Salmon, P, Weissbecker, I, Ulmer, C, Floyd, A, Hoover, K and Studts, JL. (2007). Mindfulness meditation alleviates depressive symptoms in women with fibromyalgia: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Rheumatoid, 57:77–85.
  • Smith, JE, Richardson, J, Hoffman, C and Pilkington, K. (2005). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction as supportive therapy in cancer care: Systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52:315–327. [PubMed: 16194185]
  • Speca, M, Carlson, LE, Goodey, E and Angen, M. (2000). A randomized wait-list controlled clinical trial: The effect of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62:613–622. [PubMed: 11020090]
  • Surawy, C, Roberts, J and Silver, A. (2005). The effect of mindfulness training on mood and measures of fatigue, activity, and quality of life in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome on a hospital waiting list: A series of exploratory studies. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 33:103–109.
  • Tacon, AM, Caldera, YM and Ronaghan, C. (2004). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in women with breast cancer. Families, Systems, & Health, 22:193–203.
  • Tacon, AM, Caldera, YM and Ronaghan, C. (2005). Mindfulness, Psychosocial Factors, and Breast Cancer. Journal of Cancer Pain and Symptom Palliation, 1:45–53.
  • Tacon, A, McComb, JJ, Randolph, P and Caldera, Y. (2003). Mindfulness meditation, anxiety reduction, and heart disease: A pilot study. Family Community Health, 26:25–33. [PubMed: 12802125]
  • Teasdale, J.D., Segal, Z.V., Williams, J.M.G., Ridgeway, V., Soulsby, J., & Lau, M. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615-623.
  • Teixeira, ME. (2008). Meditation as an intervention for chronic pain: An integrative review. Holistic Nurse Practitioner, 22:225–234.
  • Toneatto, T and Nguyen, L. (2007). Does mindfulness meditation improve anxiety and mood symptoms? A review of the controlled research. La Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 52:260–266.
  • Winbush, NY, Gross, CR and Kreitzer, MJ. (2007). The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sleep disturbance: A systematic review. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 3:585–591.
  • Zylowska, L, Ackerman, DL, Yang, MH, Futrell, JL, Horton, NL, Hale, TS, Pataki, C and Smalley, SL. (2008). Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: A feasibility study. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11:737–746. [PubMed: 18025249]

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