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Extensive Bibliography on Dual and Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy, Counseling, Marriage and Family Counseling and Social Work

Compiled by O. Zur, Ph.D.

This comprehensive reference list is part of an online CE course
Dual Relationships

CE Credits for Psychologists. CE Credits (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.


To locate article/s by a certain author, click on the first letter of the Author's last name
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  • Abela, A & Scerri C. S. (2010). Managing multiple relationships in supervision: Dealing with the complexity. Chapter 14. In C. Burck, G. Daniel (Eds) Mirrors and Reflections: Processes of Systemic Supervision. Karnac Books,
  • Afolabi, O. E. (2014). Dual Relationships and Boundary crossing: A Critical Issues in Clinical Psychology Practice, Researcher, 6/9, 5-16.
  • Aoyagi, M. & Portenga, S. (2010). The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41(3):253-259.
  • Andersen, M. B.; Van Raalte, J. L.; Brewer, B. W. (2001). Sport psychology service delivery: Staying ethical while keeping loose. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(1), 12-18.
  • Anderson, S.K., & Kitchener, K.S. (1996). Nonromantic, nonsexual post therapy relationships between psychologists and former clients: An exploratory study of critical incidents. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 59-66.
  • Aultman, L.P., Williams-Johnson, M.R. & Schutz, P.A. 2009. Boundary dilemmas in teacher–student relationships: Struggling with "the line". Teaching and Teacher Education 25,/5, 636–46.
  • Aumiller, G. S., Corey, D., Allen, S., Brewster, J., Cutler, M., Gupton, H., & Honig, A. (2007). Defining the field of police psychology: core domains and proficiencies. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 22, 65–76.
  • Austin, J., Austin, j. Muraori, M. & Corey, G. (2017). Multiple Relationships and Multiple Roles in Higher Education: Maintaining Multiple Roles and Relationships in Counselor Education. In Zur, O. (Ed.) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Baltzell, A., Schinke, R. J. & Watson, J. (2010). Who is my Client? Association of Applied Sport Psychology Newsletter. Spring/Summer.
  • Barker, M. (1966). The ethical Two-hater. The Counselor, 14(3),1 5-16.
  • Barnett, J. E. (1991). Dual relationships and the Federal Trade Commission. The Maryland Psychologist, 37(5), 12-14.
  • Barnett, J.E. (1991). Dual relationships in supervision. The Maryland Psychologist, 37, (3), 4-5.
  • Barnett, J. E. (1993). Psychology’s ambivalence about dual relationships. The Maryland Psychologist, 39(4), 16-22.
  • Barnett, J. E. (1993). Dual relationships, regulatory ambiguity, and psychologists’ judgment. The Maryland Psychologist, 39(5), 11-13.
  • Barnett, J. E. (1994). Patient testimonials and dual relationships. The Maryland Psychologist, 39(3), 13-14.
  • Barnett, J. E. (1994). Sexual exploitation and dual relationships. Comment and suggestions. The Maryland Psychologist, 39(5), 9-10.
  • Barnett, J. E. (1995). Managed care, conflicts of interest, and dual relationships. The Maryland Psychologist, 40(3), 8, 14.
  • Barnett, J. E. (1999). Multiple relationships: Ethical dilemmas and practical solutions  In L. VandeCreek & T. Jackson (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice (pp. 255-267). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
  • Barnett, J. E. (2008). Mentoring, boundaries, and multiple relationships: Opportunities and challenges. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16, 3-16.
  • Barnett, J. E. (2013). Multiple relationships in the military setting. In B. A. Moore & J. E. Barnett (Eds.). The military psychologist’s desk reference (pp. 103-107). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Barnett, J. E. (2013). Sexual feelings and behaviors in the psychotherapy relationship: An ethics perspective. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 70(2), 170-181.
  • Barnett, J. E. (2015). A practical ethics approach to boundaries and multiple relationships in psychotherapy. British Psychological Society Psychotherapy Section Review, 56(1), 27-37.
  • Barnett, J. E. (2016). An introduction to boundaries and multiple relationships in  psychotherapy: Issues, challenges, and recommendations. In O. Zur (Ed.) Multiple  relationships in psychotherapy and counseling: Unavoidable, common, and mandatory dual relations in therapy(pp. 17-29). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
  • Barnett, J. E., (2017). Unavoidable Incidental Contacts and Multiple Relationships in Rural Practice. In Zur, O. (Ed.) (97-107) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Barnett, J. E., & Hynes, K. C. (2015). Boundaries and Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy:Recommendations for Ethical Practice. (July) Retrieved from recommendations-for-ethical-practice.
  • Barnett, J. E., Lazarus, A. A., Vasquez, M. J. T., Moorehead-Slaughter, O., & Johnson, W. B. (2007). Boundary issues and multiple relationships: Fantasy and reality. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 401-410.
  • Barnett, J. E., & Yutrzenka, B. A. (1994). Non-sexual dual relationships in professional practice, with special applications to rural and military communities. The Independent Practitioner, 14 (5), 243-248.
  • Barnett, J. E., & Yutrzenka, B. A. (2002). Nonsexual dual relationships in professional practice, with special applications to rural and military communities. In A. A. Lazarus & O. Zur (Eds.), Dual relationships and psychotherapy (pp. 273-286). New York: Springer.
  • Bass, B. (1970). The dual role of practitioner and member if the academic community. Professional Psychology, 1, 282-283.
  • Behnke, S. (2008a).  Multiple relationships: A vignette. Monitor in Psychology, 35/1. 66.
  • Behnke, S. (2008b). Multiple relationships in campus counseling centers: A vignette. Monitor in Psychology, 39/5,76.
  • Behnke, S. (2004). Multiple relationships and APA/s new Ethics Code: Values and applications. Monitor in Psychology, 35/1. 66.
  • Behnke, S. (2015). The Ethics of Multiple Relationships: A clinical perspective. Monitor in Psychology, 46/7,84-85.
  • Bennett, B. E., Bricklin, P. M., & VandeCreek, L. (1994). Response to Lazarus's "How certain boundaries and ethics diminish therapeutic effectiveness." Ethics & Behavior, 4(3), 263-266.
  • Bergum, V. & Dossetor, J. (2005). Relational Ethics: The Full Meaning of Respect. Maryland, USA: University Publishing Group.
  • Berson, J. S. Dual Relationships for the Psychologist when custody is an Issue. Retrieved from
  • Biaggio, M., T.L. Paget, and M.S. Chenoweth. 1997. A model for ethical management of faculty–student dual relationships.Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 28/2: 184–89.
  • Blau, T. H. (1994). Psychological Services for Law Enforcement. Wiley.
  • Bleiberg, J, R. & Skufka, L. (2005). Clergy dual relationships, boundaries, and attachment. Pastoral Psychology, 54(1), 3‐22.
  • Blevins-Knabe, B. (1992). The Ethics of Dual Relationships in Higher Education, Ethics and Behavior, 2, 151–163.
  • Bonner, R. & Vandecreek, L. D. (2006). Ethical decision making for correction mental health providers. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33, 542–564.
  • Borys, D.S. & Pope, K.S. (1989). Dual relationships between therapist and client: A national study of psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20, 283-293.
  • Bowman, V.E., L.D. Hatley, and R.L. Bowman. 1995. Faculty–student relationships: The dual role controversy. Counselor Education and Supervision 34: 232–42.
  • Branch, K. A., Hayes-Smith, R., & Richards, T. N. (2011). Professors’ experiences with student disclosures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence: how "helping" students can inform teaching practices. Feminist Criminology, 6, 54–75.
  • Broomfield, K. (2008). Challenges Psychologists Encounter Working in a Correctional Setting, MA Thesis at Campus Alberta, CA.
  • Brown, J., & Cogan, K. (2006). Ethical clinical practice and sport psychology: When two worlds collide. Ethics and Behavior, 16, 15–23.
  • Brownlee, K. (1996). Ethics in community mental health care: The ethics of non-sexual dual relationships: A dilemma for the rural mental health profession. Community Mental Health Journal, 32(5), 497-503.
  • Brownlee, K., Halverson, G. & Chassie, A. (2012) The Development of Dual and Multiple Relationships for Social Workers in Rural CommunitiesJournal of Comparative Social Work 2/1.
  • Buceta, J. (1993). The sport psychologist/athletic coach dual role: Advantages, difficulties, and ethical considerations. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 5, 64-77. 
  • Bucky, S. F. (2014). Ethical issues in assessing/treating elite athletes. The National Psychologist. January Retrieved from:
  • Bucky, S. F. & Stolberg, R. A. (2017). Multiple Relationships in Sports Psychology. In Zur, O. (Ed.) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Bucky, S.F., Stolberg, R.A., Strack, B., & Landon, A. (2015). Prominent components of successful work with professional athletes. Paper presented at the meeting of San Diego Psychological Association, San Diego, CA
  • Burgard, E.,L.. (2013). Ethical Concerns about Dual Relationships in Small and Rural Communities - A review. Journal of European Psychology Students, 4(1), 69-77.
  • Burian, B. K., & Slimp, A. O. (2000). Social dual-role relationships during internship: A decision-making model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 332-338.
  • Butters, R. P. & Vaughan-Eden, V. (2011). The ethics of practicing forensic social work. Journal of Forensic Social Work, 1, 61–72.
  • Callanan, N., Eubanks, S., LeRoy, B.S., & McCarthy Veach, P. (2007). What lies beneath? Hidden dynamics in supervisor/supervisee relationships. Presented at the National Society of Genetic Counselors Annual Education Conference, Kansas City, Missouri.
  • Campbell, C. D., & Gordon, M. C. (2003). Acknowledging the inevitable: Understanding multiple relationships in rural practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(4), 430-434.
  • Carr, H & Gidman, J. (2012). Juggling the dual role of practitioner and educator: practice teachers' perceptions. Community Practitioner, 85/2, pp. 23-26(4)
  • Catalano S. (1997) The challenges of clinical practice in small or rural communities: Case studies in managing dual relationships in and outside of therapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 27: 23–35.
  • Cervantes, A. N. & Hanson, A. (2013). Dual Agency and Ethics Conflicts in Correctional Practice: Sources and Solutions. Journal American Academy of Psychiatry Law 41:1:72-78
  • Catalano, S. (1997). The challenges of clinical practice in small or rural communities: case studies in managing dual relationships in and outside of therapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 27(1), 23–35.
  • Coleman, P. (2005). Privilege and confidentiality in 12-step self-help programs: Believing the promises could be hazardous to an addict's freedom. The Journal of Legal Medicine, 26(4), 435-474.
  • Clinton, B. K., Silverman, B., & Brendel, D. (2010). Patient-targeted Googling: the ethics of searching online for patient information. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 18, 103–112.
  • Congress, E. P. (1996).  Dual Relationships in Academia: Dilemmas For Social Work Educators Journal of Social Work Education, 32, 329–338.\
  • Corey, G. (2006). Managing multiple relationships in a forensic setting. In B. Herlihy and G. Corey, Boundary issues in counseling: Multiple roles and responsibilities (170–173). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Corey, G. (2015). Combining didactic and experiential approaches to teaching a group counseling course. In B. Herlihy, & G. Corey, G. (2015b). Boundary issues in counseling: Multiple roles and responsibilities (3rd ed., pp. 177-183). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Corey, G., Haynes, R., Moulton, P., & Muratori, M. (2010). Chapter 7: Ethical Issues and Multiple Relationships in Supervision in Clinical Supervision in the Helping Professions. (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Corey G., & Herlihy, B. (2015). Managing boundaries (pp.215-230). In B. Herlihy & G. Corey, ACA ethical standards casebook (7th ed.).
  • Corey, G., Schenider, M, Muratori, M., Austin, J. & Austin J., (2017). Multiple Relationships and Multiple Roles in Higher Education: Teaching Group Counseling with a Didactic and Experiential Focus. In Zur, O. (Ed.) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge
  • Cornell, W. F. (1994) Dual Relationships in Transactional Analysis: Training, Supervision, and Therapy. Transactional Analysis Journal, 24, 21-20.
  • Covell, C. and Wheeler, J. (2006) Revisiting the 'Irreconcilable Conflict between Therapeutic and Forensic Roles': Implications for sex offender specialists (6-8)
  • Craig, J. D. (1991). Preventing dual relationships in pastoral counseling. Counseling & Values, 36(1), p 49‐54.
  • DeJulio, L. M., & Berkman, C. S. (2003). Nonsexual multiple role relationships: attitudes and behaviors of social workers. Ethics & Behavior, 13, 61–78.
  • Dell, Tom.  (2015). Marriage and Family Therapy: The Most Common Legal and Ethical Issues.  Retrieved .
  • Demask, M. & Washington, D., Legal and Ethical Issues for Addiction Professionals, Pamphlet published by Hazelden Essentials for Professionals.
  • DeLillo, D., & Gale, E. B. (2011). To Google or not to Google: graduate students’ use of the internet to access personal information about clients. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 5, 160–166. 
  • Dennis L. Conroy (2011), Chapter 4 Ethical Issues for a Police Psychologist, in Anthony H. Normore, Brian D. Fitch (ed.) Leadership in Education, Corrections and Law Enforcement: A Commitment to Ethics, Equity and Excellence (Advances in Educational Administration, Volume 12. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.53 – 72.
  • Devaney, S. (2007). The Loneliness of the Expert Witness. Medical Law Review, 15, 116-125
  • Dewane, C. J. (2010). Respecting Boundaries - The Don’ts of Dual Relationships. Social Work Today, 10/1, 18
  • Dietz, P. E. and Reese, J. T. (1986), The perils of police psychology: 10 strategies for minimizing role conflicts when providing mental health services and consultation to law enforcement agencies. Behavioral Sciences & the Law 4/4, 385–400.
  • Doverspike, W.F. (2009) Dual Relationships and Psychotherapy. Georgia Psychologist, 62(3), 17.
  • Doyle, K. (2014). Multiple Relationships with Clients: Applying the Concept of Potentially Beneficial Interactions to the Practice of Addiction Counseling. Retrieved from
  • Drew, G. (2006). Balancing Academic Advancement with Business Effectiveness: The Dual Role for Senior University LeadersInternational Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Management, 6/4, 117-125.
  • Doyle, K. (1997) Substance Abuse Counselors in Recovery: Implications for the Ethical Issue of Dual Relationships. Journal of Counseling & Development, 75/ 6, pages 428–432.
  • Drew, G. (2006). Balancing Academic Advancement with Business Effectiveness: The Dual Role for Senior University Leaders
  • Ebert, B. (1997). Dual relationship prohibitions: A concept whose time never should have come. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 6, 137-156.
  • Eisner, D.A. (2010). Expert Witness Mental Health Testimony: Handling Deposition and Trial Traps. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 28, 47-65.
  • Ellickson, K., & Brown, D. (1988). Ethical consideration in dual relationships: The sport psychologist-coach. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 2, 186-190. 
  • Englar-Carlson, M. (2015). An experiential approach to teaching group counseling. In B. Herlihy, & G. Corey, G. (2015b). Boundary issues in counseling: Multiple roles and responsibilities (3rd ed., pp. 171-177). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association
  • Falender, C. A., (2017). Multiple Relationships and Clinical Supervision. In Zur, O. (Ed.) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Faulkner, K. K. & Faulkner, T. A. (1997). Managing multiple relationships in rural communities: Neutrality and boundary violations. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 4, 225-234.
  • Fels, A. (2015). Do you Google your shrink? New York Times. Retrieved from
  • Fisher, M. A. (2009). Replacing “Who is the client?" with a different ethical question. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(1), 1–7.
  • Forester-miller, H. & Duncan, J. A. (1990). The ethics of dual relationships in the training of group counselors. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 15/2, 88-93.
  • Freud, S. (2002) Beyond the Code of Ethics, Part II: Dual Relationships Revisited. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 83/5, 483-492.
  • Freud, S., & Krug, S. (2002). Beyond the code of ethics, part II: Dual relationships revisited. Families in Society, 83(5), 483-492.
  • Friedman E, C. (2000). The ethics of a dual relationship, psychotherapist and Wiccan clergy. Paper for City University.
  • Gabriel, L. (2005). Speaking the Unspeakable: The Ethics of Dual Relationships in Counselling. Routledge.
  • Gardner, F. (1995). The coach and the team psychologist: An integrated organisational model. In S.M. Murphy (Ed.), Sport psychology interventions (pp. 147–175). Champaign: Human Kinetics.
  • Geraghty, K. (2005). Rural Practice and Dual Relationships.  Private Practice Section Connection. Spring
  • Geyer, M. C. (1994). Dual role relationships and Christian counseling. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 22(3), 187-195.
  • Goodrich, K. M. (2008). Dual relationships in group training. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 33(3), 221–235.
  • Gottlieb, M.C. (1993). Avoiding Exploitive Dual Relationships: A Decision-Making Model.  Psychotherapy, 30/1, 41-48.
  • Gottlieb, M.C. (April, 2014). "Multiple relationships in supervision." Veterans Administration North Texas Health Care System, Dallas, TX
  • Gottlieb, M.C. & Robinson, K. (2005). Coping with multiple relationships in supervision: Students and faculty persepectives. Persented at the Annual Meeting of Texas Psychological Association, Houston, TX.
  • Gottlieb, M.C., Robinson, K., and Younggren, J.N. (2007), Coping with Multiple Relations in Supervision. Professional Psychology, 38/3, 241-247.
  • Gottlieb, M.C. & Younggren, J. N. (2005). Managing Boundaries and Coping with Multiple Relations in Supervisory Relationships" In J. Thomas, Chair. Ethics of Clinical Supervision: Minimizing Risks, Enhancing Benefits. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., August.
  • Gottlieb, M. C. and Younggren, J. N. (2009), Is there a slippery slope? Considerations regarding multiple relationships and risk management, Professional Psychology, 40/6, 564-571.
  • Gottlieb, M.C., Younggren, J.N., and Murch, K. (2009), Boundary management in the practice of cognitive behavioral therapies. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice,16/2, 164-171.
  • Greenberg, S. A. & Shuman, D. W. (1997). Irreconcilable Conflict Between Therapeutic and Forensic Roles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 50 57.
  • Greenberg, S. A. & Shuman, D.W. (2007). When Worlds Collide: Therapeutic and Forensic RolesProfessional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 129-132.
  • Gross, B. (2005a). Double vision: An objective view of dual relationships. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 8(3), 36-38
  • Gross, B. (2005b). Double the pleasure, double the pain: Dual relationships (part 2 of 2). Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 8(4), 34-38.
  • Griffin, M. (1993). On Ethics Dual relationships and patient-therapist boundaries. The Therapist, May June.  Retrieved from Patient_Therapist_Boundaries.aspx
  • Gutheil, T.& Gabbard, G. (1998) Misuses and Misunderstandings of Boundary Theory in Clinical and Regulatory Settings. American Journal of Psychiatry 155(3):409-414.
  • Gutheil, T. G. and Hilliard, J. T. (2001). The Treating Psychiatrist Thrust Into the Role of Expert Witness, Psychiatric Services, 52, 1526-1527.
  • Haag, A. M. (2006). Ethical dilemmas faced by correctional psychologists in Canada. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33(1), 93–109.
  • Haberl, P., & Peterson, K. (2006). Olympic-size ethical dilemmas: Issues and challenges for sport psychology consultants on the road and at the Olympic games. Ethics & Behavior, 16, 25-40.
  • Halverson, G., & Brownlee, K. (2010). Managing ethical considerations around dual relationships in small rural and remote Canadian communities. International Social Work, 53(2), 247-260.
  • Harris, R. (2002). On dual relationships in university counseling center Environments. In A. A. Lazarus & O. Zur (Eds.). Dual Relationships and Psychotherapy. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Harris, E. & Younggren, J. N. (2010). Risk Management: Some additional thoughts on social networkingNational Psychologist, May/June, p.10
  • Harry, J. A. (1994) How personal can training get? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 20/1, 3, 15.
  • Haug, I. E. (1999). Boundaries and the use and misuse of power and authority: Ethical complexities for clergy psychotherapists. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77, 411-417.
  • Heltzel, T. (2007). Compatibility of Therapeutic and Forensic Roles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 122-128.
  • Herlihy, B., & Corey, G. (2015). Boundary Issues in Counseling: Multiple Roles and Responsibilities (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Hermann, M. A. & Robinson-Kurpius, S. (2006). New guidelines on dual relationships. Counseling Today. (December). Retrieved from
  • Heru, A.; Strong, D.; Price, M & Recupero, P. (2004) Boundaries in psychotherapy supervision. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 58/1: 76-89.
  • Hill, M. R. & Mamalakis, P. M. (2001). Family Therapists and Religious Communities: Negotiating Dual Relationships,. Family Relations, 50/3, 199-208.
  • Hines, A. H., Ader, D. N., Chang, A. S., & Rundell, J. R. (1998). Dual agency, dual relationships, boundary crossings, and associated boundary violations: A survey of military and civilian psychiatrists. Military Medicine, 163, 826-833.
  • Hollander J. K., Bauer S, Herlihy B., et al. (2006). Beliefs of board certified substance abuse counselors regarding multiple relationships. J Mental Health Counseling; 28, 84-94.
  • Holmes, D. L., Rupert, P.A., Ross, S. A. & Shapera. W. E. (1999). "Student perceptions of dual relationships between faculty and students," Ethics & Behavior, 9/2, 79–106.
  • Hoogland, A. B. (2007) Analysis of Multiple Relationships as Experienced by Marriage and Family Therapists Who Counsel Members of Their Religious Community. (Master Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout)
  • Hornak, J. N., & Hornak, J. E. (1993). Coach and player- Ethics and dangers of dual relationships. Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 5, 84-85. 
  • Horst, E. H. (1989). Dual relationships between psychologists and clients in rural and urban. Journal of Rural Community Psychology.10/2,15-24.
  • Horvath, A. O. & Luborsky, L. (1993). The Role of the Therapeutic Alliance in Psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 561-573.
  • Howe, E. G. (1986). Ethical issues regarding mixed agency of military physicians. Social Science and Medicine, 23, 803–815.
  • Heltzel, T. (2007). Compatibility of Therapeutic and Forensic RolesProfessional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38 (2), 122-128.
  • Hines, A. H., Ader, D. N., Chang, A. S., & Rundell, J. R. (1998). Dual agency, dual relationships, boundary crossings, and associated boundary violations: a survey of military and civilian psychiatrists. Military Medicine, 163, 826–833.
  • Hyman, S. M. (2002). The Shirtless Jock Therapist and the Bikini-Clad Client: An Exploration of Chance Extratherapeutic Encounters. In A. A. Lazarus & O. Zur (Eds.). Dual Relationships and Psychotherapy. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • IACFP (2010). Standards for psychology services in jails, prisons, correctional facilities, and agencies, 3rd ed. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 449–808.
  • Ieva, K. P., Ohrt, J. H., Swank, J. M., & Young, T. (2009). The impact of experiential groups on master’s students counselor and personal development: a qualitative investigation. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 34(4), 351–368.
  • International Association of Chiefs of Police. (2011). Guidelines for Consulting Police Psychologists. Arlington, VA. Retrieved from: .
  • Iosupovici, M., M.S.W., & Luke, E. (2002), College and University Student Counseling Centers: Inevitable Boundary Shifts and Dual Roles. In A. A. Lazarus & O. Zur (Eds.). Dual Relationships and Psychotherapy. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Iverson, G. L. (2000). Dual relationships in psycholegal evaluations: Treating psychologists serving as expert witnesses. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 18(2), 79-87.
  • Jeffrey, T. B., Rankin, R. J., & Jeffrey, L. K. (1992). In service of two masters: the ethical-legal dilemma faced by military psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 91–95.
  • Jensen, D. (2005). So, What exactly is a dual relationships. The Therapist, July/August. Retrieved from
  • Jensen, D. (2005).  Unlawful and/or unethical dual relationships? A word to the wise. The Therapist, Sept./Oct.. Retrieved from
  • Jensen, D. (2008). MFTs Members of the Clergy, and Their Reporting Obligations Under CANRA. May/June. Retrieved from Reporting_Obligations.aspx
  • Johnson, W. B. (1995). Perennial ethical quandaries in military psychology: Toward American Psychological Association and Department of Defense collaboration. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 281-287.
  • Johnson, W. B. (2008). Top ethical challenges for military clinical psychologists. Military Psychology, 20, 49–62.
  • Johnson, W. B. (2011). "I've got this friend:" Multiple roles, informed consent, and friendship in the military. In W. B. Johnson & G. P. Koocher (Eds.), Ethical conundrums, quandaries, and predicaments in mental health practice: A casebook from the files of experts (pp. 175-182). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Johnson, W. B., Bacho, R., Heim, M., & Ralph, J. (2006). Multiple-role dilemmas for military mental health care providers. Military Medicine, 171, 311–315
  • Johnson, W. B & Johnson, S. J., (2017). Unavoidable and Mandated Multiple  Relationships in Military Settings. In Zur, O. (Ed.) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Johnson, W. B., Ralph, J., & Johnson, S. J. (2005). Managing multiple roles in embedded environments: The case of aircraft carrier psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 73-81.
  • Johner, R. (2006). Dual relationship legitimization and client self-determination. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics, 3(1)
  • Jones, L., Evans, L., & Mullen, R. (2007). Multiple roles in an applied setting: Trainee sport psychologist, coach, and researcher. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 210-226. 
  • Justice, J. A., & Garland, D. R. (2010) Dual relationships in congregational practice: ethical guidelines for congregational social workers and pastors. Social Work and Christianity, 37, 437–445.
  • Kagle, J. D. (1994) Dual Relationships and Professional Boundaries. Social Work, 39/2, 213–220.
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  • Zur, O. (2010b). To Google or Not to Google ... Our Clients? When psychotherapists and other mental health care providers search their clients on the WebIndependent Practitioner, 30/3, pp. 144-148.
  • Zur, O. (2010c). Dual relationships. In I. B. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.), Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (4th ed., pp. 526-528).
  • Zur, O. (2010d). How Should Psychologists Respond to Online 'Friending' Requests? National Psychologist, March/April, 14.
  • Zur, O. (2010f). To Google or Not to Google . . . Our Clients. Online Publication - Zur Institute.
  • Zur, O. (2010e) To Accept or Not to Accept? How to respond when clients send "Friend Request" to their psychotherapists or counselors on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter or other social networking sites. Online Publication - Zur Institute.
  • Zur, O. (2011). I love these e-mails, or do I?  The use of e-mails in psychotherapy and counseling. Retrieved from
  • Zur, O. (2012a). Google Factor: Therapists' Transparency In The Digital Era of Google and MySpace. In Stout, C. E. (Ed.) Chapter 14: Getting Better at Private Practice. Hoboken, New Jersey, and John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 230-238.
  • Zur, O. (2012b). Therapeutic Ethics in the Digital AgePsychotherapy Networker, July/August 26-33. Retreived on July 16, 2012
  • Zur, O. (2012c). Multiple Relationships Not Always BadNational Psychologist, Jan. p. 8.
  • Zur, O. (2014a). Forensic Dual or Multiple Relationships: Treating Psychotherapists as Experts. Retrieved from
  • Zur, O. (2014b). Not All Multiple Relationships Are Created Equal: Mapping the Maze of 26 Types of Multiple RelationshipsIndependent Practitioner, 34/1, 15-22.
  • Zur, O. (2014c). Not all multiple relationships are created equal: Mapping the Maze of 26 Types of Multiple Relationships. The Independent Practitioner, 34 (1), 15-22.
  • Zur, O. and Donnor, M. B. (2009). Google Factor: Therapists' Transparency In The Era of Google and MySpaceCalifornia Psychologist, Jan./Feb., p. 23-24.
  • Zur, O. (Ed.) (2017). Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Zur, O. (2017). The Truth About The Codes Of Ethics: Dispelling the Rumors that Dual Relationships are Unethical. (Annotated quotes from professional associations codes of ethics on dual or multiple relationships). Retrieved from
  • Zur, O., & Gonzalez, S. (2002). Multiple relationships in military psychology. In A. Lazarus, & O. Zur (Eds.), Dual relationships and psychotherapy (pp. 315-328). New York: Springer. 
  • Zur, O., & Lazarus, A. A. (2002a). Six arguments against dual relationships and their rebuttals. In A. A. Lazarus, & Zur, O. (Eds.), Dual relationships and psychotherapy (pp. 3-24). New York: Springer. 
  • Zur, O. & Lazarus, A. A. (2002b). Guidelines for non-sexual dual relationships in psychotherapy. In A. A. Lazarus, & O. Zur (Eds.), Dual relationships and psychotherapy (pp. 473-475). New York: Springer. 
  • Zur, O. & Trachsel, M. (In Print). Beyond the Office Walls: Ethical Issues of Home Visits, and Adventure Therapy, Oxford Handbook of Psychotherapy Ethics. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK.
  • Zur, O. & Zur, A. (2011). The Facebook Dilemma: To Accept or Not to Accept? Responding to Clients' "Friend Requests" on Psychotherapists' Social Networking SitesIndependent Practitioner, 31/1, pp. 12-17.

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