Professional Organizations' Codes of Ethics
On Gifts in Psychotherapy & Counseling
By Ofer Zur, Ph.D.
This article is part of an online course for CE credits on Gifts In Psychotherapy and Counseling.
It covers the aspects of gifts that are cited in the professional organizations' codes of ethics.
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) - (2012)
Principle III, Professional Competence and Integrity, states:
3.10 Marriage and family therapists do not give to or receive from clients (a) gifts of substantial value or (b) gifts that impair the integrity or efficacy of the therapeutic relationship.
Dr. Zur's note: We must be aware that whether the gifts are of substantial value or not, is not always the most important aspect of the gift, from a clinical or ethical point of view. Obviously, very expensive gifts are often counter-clinical and may be unethical. However, even very cheap gifts, such as a suggestive image or a condom are inappropriate. Additionally, what constitutes 'substantial value" is a very vague and broad term.
American Counseling Association (ACA) - (2014)
Section A.10.f., states:
Counselors understand the challenges
of accepting gifts from clients and recognize that in some cultures, small gifts are a token of respect and gratitude. When determining whether to accept a gift from clients, counselors take into account the therapeutic relationship, the monetary value of the gift, the client’s motivation for giving the gift, and the counselor’s motivation for wanting to accept or decline the gift.
Dr. Zur's note: The 2014 revision of the ACA Code of Ethics represents thoughtful and appropriate guidelines in regard to accepting gifts from clients. It acknowledges the importance of culture and other context related factors.
American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) Codes of Ethics - (2010)
Section 2. Fee Arrangements, Bartering, and Gifts:
Mental health counselors are cognizant of cultural norms in relation to fee arrangements, bartering, and gifts. Mental health counselors clearly explain to clients, early in the counseling relationship, all financial arrangements related to counseling.
d) When accepting gifts, mental health counselors take into consideration the therapeutic relationship, motivation of giving, the counselor’s motivation for receiving or declining, cultural norms, and the value of the gift.
Dr. Zur's note: Unlike the 2000 code the 2010 AMHCA code include the above, rather reasonable, mention of "gifts' in therapy.
National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors (NAADAC) - (2004)
Section Principle 7, Dual Relationships, states:
3. The addiction professional avoids situations that might appear to be or could be interpreted as a conflict of interest. Gifts from clients, other treatment organizations or the providers of materials or services used in the addiction professional's practice will not be accepted, except when refusal of such gift would cause irreparable harm to the client relationship. Gifts of value over $25 will not be accepted under any circumstances.
Dr. Zur's note: It is important to remember that gifts by themselves, in most situations, do not constitute dual relationships. It is not clear why the reference to gifts is placed under the section of Dual Relationships. As was noted above, we must also be aware that whether the gifts are of substantial value or not is not always the most important aspect of the gift from a clinical or ethical point of view. Arbitrarily, limiting the value of gifts to $25 does not make sense, as books, cakes, or other common appropriate gifts may easily exceed $25 in value.
National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) - (2013)
NCCs shall not accept gifts from clients except in cases when it is culturally appropriate or therapeutically relevant because of the potential confusion that may arise. NCCs shall consider the value of the gift and the effect on the therapeutic relationship when contemplating acceptance. This consideration shall be documented in the client's record.
The following professional associations' Codes Of Ethics DO NOT mention "gifts" in their texts:
American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC) - (2012)
American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work (ABE) - (2006)
American Psychiatric Association (ApA) - (2013)
American Psychological Association (APA) - (2010)
Association of State And Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) - (2005)
California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists (CAMFT) - (2011)
Canadian Counseling Association (CCA) - (2007)
Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) - (2000)
Feminist Therapy Institute (FTI) - (1999)
National Association of Social Workers (NASW) - (2008)
Northamerican Association of Masters in Psychology (NAMP) - (2000)
United States Association for Body Psychotherapy (USABP) - 2007
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