Forensic Dual Relationships:
Psychotherapists And Treaters As Expert Witnesses
By D. Eisner, Ph.D., JD. & Ofer Zur, Ph.D.
This web page is part of an Online Course on Forensic Dual Relationships
For Online Resources on the topic, click here.
American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (2005). Ethics Guidelines for the Practice of Forensic Psychiatry.
American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. (1989). Ethical guidelines for the practice of forensic psychiatry. In Membership Directory of American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (pp. x-xiii). Bloomfield, CT: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (1984). Psychiatry in the Sentencing Phase: A Report of the Task Force on the Role of Psychiatry in the Sentencing Process. Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychological Association (1992). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychologist, 47 (12), 1597-1611.
American Psychological Association. (1994). Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings. American Psychologist, 49, 677-680.
Berlin, L. (2005). Can a Radiologist be Compelled to Testify as an Expert Witness? American Journal of Roentgenology, 185, 36-42.
Bierman N. (2003). Nova Southeastern University Psychology Students Help Test Some Murder Defendants and Have Put Court Rulings in Jeopardy. Miami Herald, October 2, 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1066316798.02/6910728.htm
Brodsky, S.L. (2004). Coping with Cross-Examination and Other Pathways to Effective Testimony. Washington DC: American Psychological Press.
Campbell, T. W. (2005) Treating Therapist vs. Expert Witness. Retrieved on August 15, 2010 from http://www.campsych.com/witness.html.
Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. (1991). Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. Law and Human Behavior, 15, 655-665.
Committee on Psychiatry and Law, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1991). The Mental Health Professional and the Legal System (Rep. No. 131). New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.
Covell, C. and Jennifer Wheeler, J. (2006) Revisiting the 'Irreconcilable Conflict between Therapeutic and Forensic Roles': Implications for sex offender specialists. Retrieved on August 15, 2010 from http://www.ap-ls.org/publications/newsletters/aplsnews.fall2006.pdf (pages 6-8).
Devaney, S. (2007). The Loneliness of the Expert Witness. Medical Law Review, 15, 116-125
Eisner, D.A.(2010). Expert Witness Mental Health Testimony: Handling Deposition and Trial Traps. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 28, 47-65.
Ethical Standards, California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists. Retrieved from: www.camft.org
Finn, S. E. and Tonsagec, M. E. (1996). Therapeutic assessment: Using psychological testing to help clients change. Manuscript in preparation.
Gibbons, M. (2009). Social Worker Admits in Court He s No Doctor. The Intelligencer, April 24, 2009
Goodin, D. (2007). Man Faces 10 Years for Fudging Computer Credentials. The Register Company, UK, May 9, 2007
Greenberg, S. A. & Shuman, D. W. (1997). Irreconcilable Conflict Between Therapeutic and Forensic Roles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28, 50 57.
Greenberg, S. A., & Moreland, K. (1995). Forensic evaluations and forensic applications of the MMPI/MMPI-2. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota, Department of Continuing Education and Conference Services, Minneapolis, and The American Academy of Forensic Psychology.
Guthieil, T. G. (2002). The Psychiatric Expert Witness. Psychiatric Times, 19, 4.
Gutheil, T. G. and Hilliard, J. T. (2001). The Treating Psychiatrist Thrust Into the Role of Expert Witness, Psychiatric Services, 52, 1526-1527.
Gutheil, T. G., Simon, S.I. & Simpson, S. (2006). Attorney s Request for Complete Tax Records from Opposing Expert Witnesses: Some Approaches to the Problem. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 34, 518-522
Heltzel, T. (2007). Compatibility of Therapeutic and Forensic Roles. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 122-128.
Horvath, A. O. & Luborsky, L. (1993). The Role of the Therapeutic Alliance in Psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 561-573.
Reid, W. H (2010). When Lawyers Call Clinicians. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 16, 253-257.
Reid, W. H. (2003). Why Forensic Clinicians Should Decline Forensic Referrals. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 9:163-166.
Reid, W. H. (1998). Treating Clinicians and Expert Testimony. Journal of Practical Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, March, 1-3.
Shuman, D. W. & Greenberg, S. A. (1998). The Role of Ethical Norms in the Admissibility of Expert Testimony. The Judges Journal, 37, 4 9, 42 43.
Shuman, D. W. (1983). Testimonial Compulsion: The Involuntary Medical Expert Witness. Journal of Legal Medicine, 4, 419-446.
Shuman, D. W. (1994). Psychiatric and Psychological Evidence (2nd ed.). Colorado Springs, CO: Shepherds/McGraw-Hill.
Shuman, D. W., & Weiner, M. F. (1987). The Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege: A Critical Examination. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
Slovic, P. & Fischhoff, B. (1977). On the Psychology of Experimental Surprises. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 3, 544 551.
Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology. Retrieved from: www.ap-ls.org
Strasberger, L., Gutheil, T., & Brodsky, A. (1997). On Wearing Two Hats: Role Conflict in Serving as Both Psychotherapist and Expert Witness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 448 456.
Swerdlow-Freed. D. H. Therapeutic and Forensic Role Conflicts. Retrieved on August 15, 2010 from http://www.drswerdlow-freed.com/articles/therapeutic-and-forensic-role-conflicts/.
Weiss, S. L. (2004). Expert Witness Malpractice Actions: Emerging Trend or Aberrations? ALI/ADA course of Study, April 15-16, 2004, New Orleans, LA.
Wesson, M. (1985). Historical Truth, Narrative Truth, and Expert Testimony, Washington Law Review, 60, 331-354.
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