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Gifts In Psychotherapy

Resources

This resource page is part of an Online Course
Gifts In Psychotherapy: Ethical & Clinical Considerations

CE Credits for Psychologists. CE Credits (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.

 

 

Resources

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Articles With References to Gifts

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Guidelines

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Codes of Ethics and Regulations

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References that Frown Upon Gift Giving in Therapy

  • Even though most codes of ethics do not consider accepting gifts from clients as unethical (most do not even mention it in the code) some therapists view it in negative terms:
    • In the Room: It claims that:
      • Gifts in general should not be accepted although see the debate below
      • The trick is to acknowledge and accept the meanings behind the gift but not the gift itself.

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Additional References

  • American Indian Mental Health Advisory Council. (2004). Cultural Competency Guidelines For the Provision of Clinical Mental Health Services To American Indians In the State of Minnesota. Retrieved from http://edocs.dhs.state.mn.us/lfserver/Legacy/DHS-4086-ENG.
  • Bader, M.J. (1996). Altruistic Love in Psychoanalysis Opportunities and Resistance. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 6 (6),741-764.
  • Bailey, D. S. (2004) Approaching ethical dilemmas. Monitor On Psychology, 35 (9), 62.
  • Barnett, J.E. & Bivings, N.D. (2002). Culturally sensitive treatment and ethical practice. The Maryland Psychologist, 48 (2), 8, 25.
  • Barnett, J. & Barteck, K. (2009). Thanks, That's Just What I wanted: Psychotherapy, Gifts and Ethical Practices. Independent Practitioner, Spring, 73-77.
  • Brendel, D.H., Chu J, Radden, J., Leeper, H., Pope, H. G., Samson, I.,, Tsimprea, G., and Bodkin, J. A. (2007). price of a gift: an approach to receiving gifts from patients in psychiatric practice. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 15 (2):43-51
  • Brown, C. and Trangsrud, H. B. (2008). Factors Associated With Acceptance and Decline of Client Gift Giving. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39 (5), 505 511.
  • Bursten B. (1959) The expressive value of gifts. American Imago, 16/4, 437-446.
  • Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callahan, P. (2003). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (6th Edition). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Duke Energy. (2004). Gifts, Meals, Services & Entertainment: Duke Energy's Code of Business Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.duke-energy.com/investors/governance/ethics/gifts.asp.
  • Gabbard and Nadelson (1995). Professional Boundaries in the physician-patient relationships. Journal of American Medical Association. 273 (18), 1445-1449.
  • Gerson, A. & Fox, D. D. (1999). Boundary violations: The Gray Area. Journal of Forensic Psychology, 7, (2), 57-61.
  • Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: Theoretical and risk-management dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 188-196.
  • Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1998). Misuses and misunderstandings of boundary theory in clinical and regulatory settings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155 (3), 409-414.
  • Hahn, W. K. (1998) Gifts in Psychotherapy: An Intersubjective Approach to Patient Gifts. Psychotherapy; Theory/Research/Practice/Training, 35 (1), 78-86.
  • Jain, S., & Weiss Roberts, L. (2009). Ethics in Psychotherapy: A Focus on Professional Boundaries and Confidentiality Practices. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32(2), 299–314. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2009.03.005
  • Knox, S., DuBois, R., Smith, J., Hess, S. A., & Hill, C. E. (2009). Clients' experiences giving gifts to therapists. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46, 350-361.
  • Knox, S., Hess, S. A., Williams, E. N., & Hill, C. E. (2003). Here's a little something for you: How therapists respond to clients gifts. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 199-210.
  • Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (2008). Exchanging gifts and favors. In Ethics in psychology and the mental health professions: Standards and cases (3rd Ed.) (292-295). New York, NY: Oxford University Press
  • Kritzberg, N.I. (1980) On patients' gift-giving. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 16:98-118.
  • Lazarus, A. A. (1994). How certain boundaries and ethics diminish therapeutic effectiveness. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 253--261.
  • Otnes, C., & Beltramini, R. F. (1996). Gift-giving: A research anthology. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
  • Polster, (2001). D. S. (2001). Gifts. In American Psychiatric Association Ethics Primer. DC: ApA.
  • Pope, K. S., Tabachnick, B. G., & Keith-Spiegel, P. (1987). Ethics of practice: The beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as therapists. American Psychologist, 42, 993-1006.
  • Reid, W. H. (1998). Standard of care and patient need. The Journal of Psychiatric Practice, May. Retrieved from www.reidpsychiatry.com/columns/Reid05-98.pdf.
  • Reist D. & VandeCreek, L. (2004). The Pharmaceutical Industry's Use of Gifts and Educational Events to Influence Prescription Practices: Ethical Dilemmas and Implications for Psychologist. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35 (4), 329-335,
  • Saad, G. & Gill, T. (2003). An Evolutionary Psychology Perspective on Gift-giving among Young Adults. Psychology & Marketing, 20 (9), 765-784.
  • Silber, A. (1969). A patient's gift: its meaning and function. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 50(3), 335-41.
  • Smolar, A. M. (2003) When We Give More: Reflections on Intangible Gifts from Therapist to Patient. American Journal of Psychotherapy , 57, 3, 300-323.
  • Spandler, H., Burman, E., Goldberg, B., Margison, F., and Amos, T. (2000). A Double edged Sword: Understanding Gifts in Psychotherap,y European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counseling and Health 3(1) 77-101.
  • Stein, H. (1965). The gift in therapy, American Journal of Psychotherapy 19/3, 480-486.
  • Strasburger, L.H., Jorgenson, L. & Sutherland, P. (1992). The prevention of psychotherapy sexual misconduct: avoiding the slippery slope. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 46, 544-555.
  • Srivastava, A. & Grover, N. (2016). Reflections about being offered gifts in psychotherapy: A descriptive case study. Psychological Studies, 61(1), 83-86. doi:10.1007/s12646-015-0350-6
  • Tabachnick, B. G., Keith-Spiegel, P., & Pope, K. S. (1991). Ethics of teaching: Beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as educators. American Psychologist, 46, 506-515.
  • Talan, K. H. (1989) Gifts in psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 44, 149-163.
  • Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1992). Psychological foundations of culture. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 19-136). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Trimble, J. E. (2002). Counseling across Cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Welfel, E. R. (2002). Ethics in Counseling and Psychotherapy: Standards, Research and Emerging Issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Williams, M. H. (1997). Boundary violations: Do some contended standards of care fail to encompass commonplace procedures of humanistic, behavioral, and eclectic psychotherapies? Psychotherapy, 34 (3), 238-249.
  • Zur, O. (2003). The Standard of Care in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Shedding Clarity on an Illusive Standard. Online publication by O. Zur, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.zurinstitute.com/standardofcaretherapy.html
  • Zur, O. (2004). To Cross or Not to Cross: Do boundaries in therapy protect or harm. The Psychotherapy Bulletin, 39 (3), 27-32, 2004.
  • Zur, O. (2006). Therapeutic Boundaries and Dual Relationships in Rural Practice: Ethical, Clinical and Standard of Care Considerations. Journal of Rural Community Psychology, V. E9/1.
  • Zur, O. (2007). Boundaries in Psychotherapy: Ethical and Clinical Explorations. Washington, DC: APA Books

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