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Informed Consent


This resource page is part of two Online Courses
Informed Consent in Psychotherapy and Counseling
Informed Consent and the Legal System

CE Credits for Psychologists. CE Credits (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.



The following resources and references are not mandatory reading for this online course. They provide additional information that you may wish to review. Any forms that are listed are available to the public via the Internet and therefore may change without prior notice.


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  • Appelbaum, PS; Roth, LH; Lidz, CW; Benson, P; and Winslade, W (1987). "False hopes and best data: Consent to research and the therapeutic misconception." Hastings Cent Rep, Apr; 17(2):20-24.
  • Baker, LA (1988). "I think I do: Another perspective on consent and the law." Law Med Health Care, Fall-Winter 16(3-4):256-60.
  • Baker, MT and Taub, HA. (1983). "Readability of informed consent forms for research in a Veterans Administration medical center." JAMA, Nov 18; 250(19):2646-48.
  • Barden, R.C. (2001) "Informed consent in psychotherapy: A multidisciplinary perspective." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 29 (2): 160-166.
  • Baum, M. (1986). "Do we need informed consent?" Lancet, Oct 18; 2(8512):911-12.
  • Baum, M. (1982). "The ethics of clinical trials and informed consent." Experientia Suppl (41):300-8.
  • Beahrs, J.O. & Gutheil, T.G. (2001) "Informed consent in psychotherapy," American Journal of Psychiatry, 158 (1): 4-10.
  • Beauchamp, T. L., and Childress, J. F. (1994). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Beeman, D.G. and Scott, N.A. (1991). "Therapists' attitudes toward psychotherapy informed consent with adolescents." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22(3), Jun: 230-234.
  • Berg, J. W.; Lidz, C. W.; Appelbaum, P. S.; and Parker, L. S. (2001). Informed Consent: Legal Theory and Clinical Practice, 2nd edition. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Boisaubin, EV and Dresser, R (1987). "Informed consent in emergency care: Illusion and reform." Ann Emerg Med, Jan; 16 (1):62-67.
  • Borak, J and Veilleux, S (1984): "Informed consent in emergency settings." Ann Emerg Med, Sep; 13 (9 Pt 1):731-35.
  • Borkosky, B & Smith, D.M. (2015) The risks and benefits of disclosing psychotherapy records to the legal system: What psychologists and patients need to know for informed consent. International journal of law and psychiatry, 42, 19-30.
  • Brenner, LH and Gerken, EA (1986). "Informed consent: Myths and risk management alternatives." QRB, Dec, 12(12):420-25.
  • Cannell, J.; Hudson, J.I.; and Pope, H.G. (2001) "Standards for informed consent in recovered memory therapy." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 29: 138-147.
  • Capron, AM (1983): "Uniform Law Commissioners' Model Health-Care Consent Act. Considerations against adoption." J Leg Med (Chic), Dec; 4(4):513-24.
  • Cunningham, M.D. (2006). "Informed Consent in Capital Sentencing Evaluations: Targets and Content." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(5), Oct:452-459.
  • Curran, WJ (1986). "Law-medicine notes: Informed consent in malpractice cases: A turn toward reality." N Engl J Med, Feb 13; 314(7):429-31.
  • Deutsch, E. (1989). "The right not to be treated or to refuse treatment." Med Law , 7(5): 433-38.
  • Donnelly, M. (2002). Consent. Crosses Green, Ireland: Cork University Press.
  • Douglas, S. and Larson, E. (1986). "There's more to informed consent than information." Focus Crit Care, Apr; 13(2):43-47.
  • Druml C. (2004). "Informed consent of incapable (ICU) patients in Europe: existing laws and the EU Directive." Curr Opin Crit Care, Dec;10(6):570-3.
  • Engelhardt, HT, Jr. (1988). "Information and authenticity: Rethinking free and informed consent (editorial)." J Gen Intern Med, Jan-Feb; 3(1):91-93.
  • Faden, R. R., and Beauchamp, T. L. (1986). A History and Theory of Informed Consent. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Fisher, JA. (2006). "Procedural Misconceptions and Informed Consent: Insights from Empirical Research on the Clinical Trials Industry." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 16(3): 251-268.
  • Giesen, D. (1988). International Medical Malpractice Law. Dordrecht: Nijhoff.
  • Graca, J. (1985). "Whither informed consent to psychotherapy?" American Psychologist, 40(9), Sep:1062-1063.
  • Gustafson, K.E.; McNamara, J. R.; and Jensen, J.A. (1994). "Parents' informed consent decisions regarding psychotherapy for their children: Consideration of therapeutic risks and benefits." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25(1), Feb:16-22.
  • Gutheil, TG; Bursztajn, H; and Brodsky, A (1984). "Malpractice prevention through the sharing of uncertainty. Informed consent and the therapeutic alliance." N Engl J Med, Jul 5; 311(1):49-51.
  • Handelsman, M.M. and Galvin, M.D. (1988). "Facilitating informed consent for outpatient psychotherapy: A suggested written format." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19(2), Apr:223-225.
  • Handelsman, M.M.; Kemper, M.B.; Kesson-Craig, P.; and McLain, J. (1986). "Use, content, and readability of written informed consent forms for treatment." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17(6), Dec:514-518.
  • Handelsman, M.M. and Martin, W.L. (1992). "Effects of readability on the impact and recall of written informed consent material." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23(6), Dec:500-503.
  • Hanson, L. R. (2003). "Informed Consent and the Scope of a Physician's Duty of Disclosure." Specialty Law Digest: Health Care Law, 285: 9–34.
  • Hawkins, I.A. and Bullock, S.L. (1995). "Informed consent and religious values: A neglected area of diversity." Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 32(2), Sum:293-300.
  • Helfand, M. (1983). "Understanding how physicians think: Medical decision making and informed consent." Pharos, Fall; 46(4):31-36.
  • Holmes-Rovner, M, and Wills, CE. (2002). "Improving informed consent: insights from behavioral decision research." Med Care, Sep;40(9 Suppl):V30-8.
  • Ilgen, D.R.and Bell, B.S. (2001). "Informed consent and dual purpose research." American Psychologist, 56(12), Dec:1177.
  • Jensen, J.A.; McNamara, J.R.; and Gustafson, K.E. (1991). "Parents' and clinicians' attitudes toward the risks and benefits of child psychotherapy: A study of informed-consent content." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22(2), Apr: 161-170.
  • Jonsen, A. R.; Winslade, W. J.; and Siegler, M. (2002). Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 5th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Kapp, MB (1989). "Enforcing patient preferences: Linking payment for medical care to informed consent." JAMA, Apr 7; 261(13):1935-38.
  • Kapp, MB. (1989). "Informed consent for federal clinicians." Milit Med, May; 154(5): 238-42.
  • Karpman, A. (2000). "Informed Consent: Does the First Amendment Protect a Patient's Right to Choose Alternative Treatment?" New York Law School Journal of Human Rights 16, no. 3:933–957.
  • Katz, J. (1984). The Silent World of Doctor and Patient. New York: Free Press.
  • Kee, F. (1989). "Risk management, public policy and informed consent: A case study." Public Health, Jul; 103(4):281-87.
  • Lasagna, L. (1983). "The professional-patient dialogue." Hastings Cent Rep, Aug; 13 (4): 9-11.
  • Levine, RJ (1987). "Medical ethics and personal doctors: Conflicts between what we teach and what we want." Am J Law Med, 13(2-3):351-64.
  • Lidz, CW; Meisel, A; and Munetz, M (1985). "Chronic disease: The sick role and informed consent." Cult Med Psychiatry, Sep; 9 (3):241-55.
  • Lidz, CW; Meisel, A; Osterweis, M; Holden, JL; Marx, JH; and Munetz, MR (1983). "Barriers to informed consent." Ann Intern Med, Oct; 99(4):539-43.
  • Luce, J. M. (2003). "Is the Concept of Informed Consent Applicable to Clinical Research Involving Critically Ill Patients?" Critical Care Medicine 31, no. 3: S153–S160.
  • Marr, S. (2002). "Protect Your Practice: Informed Consent." PlasticSurgical Nursing 22, no. 4: 180–197.
  • Mason, J. K., and McCall Smith, R. A. (1999). Law and Medical Ethics. London: Butterworths.
  • Mazur, DJ (1986). "Informed consent: Court viewpoints and medical decision making." Med Decis Making, Oct-Dec; 6(4):224-30.
  • Mazur, DJ (1988). "Why the goals of informed consent are not realized: Treatise on informed consent for the primary care physician." J Gen Intern Med, Jul-Aug; 3(4):370-80.
  • McCrady, B.S. and Bux, D.A. Jr. (1999). "Ethical issues in informed consent with substance abusers." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), Apr:186-193.
  • Meadows, M. (2003). "Drug Research and Children." FDA Consumer 37, no. 1: 12–17.
  • Minogue, BP; Taraszewski, R; Elias, S; and Annas, GJ (1988). "The whole truth and nothing but the truth?" Hastings Cent Rep, Oct-Nov; 18(5):34-36.
  • Noll, J.O. (1981). "Material risks and informed consent to psychotherapy." American Psychologist, 36(8), Aug:915-916.
  • O'Neill, P. (1998). Negotiating Consent in Psychotherapy. New York: New York University Press. Retrieved 1-4-07.
  • Ozar, D.T. (1983). "An alternative rationale for informed consent by human subjects." American Psychologist, 38(2), Feb:230-232.
  • Pomerantz, A.M. (2005). "Increasingly Informed Consent: Discussing Distinct Aspects of Psychotherapy at Different Points in Time." Ethics & Behavior, 15(4): 351–360.
  • Pomerantz, A.M. and Handelsman, M.M. (2004). "Informed Consent Revisited: An Updated Written Question Format." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(2), Apr:201-205.
  • Radford, R. (2002). Informed Consent. Bangor, Maine:
  • Rosenberg, JE and Towers, B (1986). "The practice of empathy as a prerequisite for informed consent." Theor Med, Jun; 7(2):181-94.
  • Rozovsky, F.A. (1990). Consent to Treatment: A Practical Guide. Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Smith, D. (1981). "Unfinished business with informed consent procedures." American Psychologist, 36(1), Jan:22-26.
  • Solomon R.C. (2006). "Ethical issues in medical malpractice." Emerg Med Clin North Am., Aug;24(3):733-47.
  • Somberg, D.R.; Stone, G.L.; and Claiborn, C.D. (1993). "Informed consent: Therapists' beliefs and practices." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24(2), May:153-159.
  • Sullivan, T.; Martin, W.L.; and Handelsman, M.M. (1993). "Practical benefits of an informed-consent procedure: An empirical investigation." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24(2), May: 160-163.
  • Talbert, F.S. and Pipes, R.B. (1988). "Informed consent for psychotherapy: Content analysis of selected forms." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19(2), Apr:131-132.
  • Taub, HA; Baker, MT; Kline, GE; and Sturr, JF (1987). "Comprehension of informed consent information by young-old through old-old volunteers." Exp Aging Res, Winter; 13(4):173-78.
  • Tucker, J.A. and Vuchinich, R.E. (2000). "Creating a research context for reducing risk and obtaining informed consent in human alcohol studies." Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(4), Dec:319-327.
  • Wallace, LM (1986). "Informed consent to elective surgery: The 'therapeutic' value?" Soc Sci Med, 22(1):29-33.
  • Wang, CE and Huch, MH. (2000). "Protecting human research subjects: an international perspective." Nurs Sci Q., Oct;13(4):293-8.
  • Zerubavel, E. (1980). "The bureaucratization of responsibility: The case of informed consent." Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 8(2):161-67.

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