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Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM)

Resources

CE Credits for Psychologists. CE Credits (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.

 

 

Online Resources

Order the PDM

Overview of the PDM

Table of Contents of PDM

Introduction to PDM

Sponsoring Organizations, Steering Committee, and PDM Task Force

DSM: Diagnosing for Money and Power - Summary of the Critique of the DSM
    By Ofer Zur, Ph.D. and Nola Nordmarken, MFT:

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References

Akhtar, S. (1989). Narcissistic personality disorder: Descriptive features and differential diagnosis. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12, 3.

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-III. Washington, DC.

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-III-R. Washington, DC

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV. Washington, DC.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-TR . Washington, DC.

American Psychological Association. (2004). Rethinking the DSM: Psychological Perspective. Ed. Beutler, L. & Malik, M. Washington, DC.

Baumann, B. D., Hilsenroth, M. J., Ackerman, S. J., Baity, M. R., Smith, C. L., Smith, S. R. et al. (2001). The capacity for dynamic process scale: An examination of reliability, validity, and relation to therapeutic alliance. Psychotherapy Research, 11, 275-294.l

Bellak, L., Hurvich, M., & Gediman, H. (1973). Ego functions in schizophrenics, neurotics, and normals. New York: Wiley.

Berliner, B. (1958). The role of object relations in moral masochism. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 27, 38-56.

Blatt, S. J. (1998). Contributions of psychoanalysis to the understanding and treatment of depression. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 723-752.

Blatt, S. J. (2004). Experiences of depression: Theoretical, clinical, and research perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Blatt, S. J., & Bers, S. A. (1993). The sense of self in depression: A psychodynamic perspective. In Segal, Z. V. & Blatt, S. J. (Eds.) (1993). The self in emotional distress. Cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.

Blatt, S. J. (in press). A fundamental polarity in psychoanalysis: Implications for personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process. Psychoanalytic Inquiry.

Bornstein, R. F. (1993). The dependent personality. New York: Guilford Press.

Braun, B. G. (1988). The BASK (behavior, affect, sensation, knowledge) model of dissociation. Dissociation 1: 4-23.

Brenner, I. (2001). Dissociation of trauma: Theory, phenomenology, and technique. New York: International Universities Press.

Bromberg, P. M. (2001). Standing in the spaces: Essays on clinical process, trauma, and dissociation. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Bursten, B. (1973). The manipulator: A psychoanalytic view. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Carey, B. (2006). For Therapy, a New Guide With a Touch of Personality, New York Times - Science. 1. 24. 2006.

Caplan, P. (1995). They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Who's Normal. Jackson, MI: DaCapo.

Cooper, A., & Ronningstam, E. (1992). In A. Tasman & M. Riba (Eds.), American Psychiatric Press review of psychiatry, vol. 2 (pp. 80-97). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Davies, J. M., & Frawley, M. G. (1993). Treating the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: A psychoanalytic perspective. New York: Basic Books.

Davies, J. M., & Frawley, M. G. (1994). Treating the adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: A psychoanalytic perspective. New York: Basic Books.

Deutsch, H. (1942). Some forms of emotional disturbance and their relationship to schizophrenia. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 11, 301-321.

Doidge, N. (2001). Diagnosing The English Patient: Schizoid fantasies of being skinless and being buried alive. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 49, 279-309.

Ferber, A. (1959) (Reporter). Phobias and their vicissitudes. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 7, 182-192.

Finkelhor, D. (Ed.) (1986). A sourcebook on child sexual abuse. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Fisher, S., & Greenberg, R. P. (1985). The scientific credibility of Freud's theories and therapy. New York: Columbia University Press.

Frank, J. D., Margolin, J., Nash, H. T., Stone, A. R., Varon, E., & Ascher, E. (1952). Two behavior patterns in therapeutic groups and their apparent motivation. Human Relations, 5, 289-317.

Freud, S. (1924). The economic problem of masochism. Standard Edition, 19, 159-170.

Freud, S. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms and anxiety. Standard Edition, 29, 75-175, 1959.

Fromm, E. (1973). The anatomy of human destructiveness. New York: Fawcett.

Gabbard, G. O. (1989). Two subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 53, 527-532.

Gacano, C., & Meloy, J. R. (1994). Rorschach assessment of aggressive and psychopathic personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Greenspan, S. I. (1997). Developmentally based psychotherapy. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.

Guntrip, H. (1969). Schizoid phenomena, object relations and the self. New York: International Universities Press.

Hanlon, Phyllis (2006). Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual offers new approach. New England Psychologist, Vol.14, No.2. March 2006. Retrieved May 29, 2006 from http://www.nepsych.com.

Henderson, D. K. (1939). Psychopathic states. London: Chapman & Hall.

Hilsenroth, M. J., Ackerman, S. J., Blagys, M. D., Baity, M. R., & Hurvich, M. (2003). The place of annihilation anxiety in psychoanalytic theory. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 51, 579-616.

Holt, S., Meloy, J. R., & Strack, S. (1999). Journal of American Academic Psychiatry and the Law, 27, 23-32.

Horowitz, M. J. (Ed.) (1991). Hysterical personality style and the histrionic personality disorder. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Horowitz, M. J. (1976). Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson Press.

Hunt, W. (1995). The diffident narcissist: A character-type illustrated in The Beast in the Jungle by Henry James. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 76, 1257-1267.

Kazarian, S. S., & Evans, D. R. (Eds.) (2001). Handbook of cultural health psychology. Philadelphia: Elsevier Science & Technology Books.

Karon, B. P. (2003). The tragedy of schizophrenia without psychotherapy. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, 89-118.

Kernberg, O. F. (1967). Borderline personality organization. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15, 641-685.

Kernberg, O. F. (1975). Borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson.

Kernberg, O. F. (1984). Severe personality disorders: Psychotherapeutic strategies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Kernberg, O. F. (1988). Clinical dimensions of masochism. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 36, 1005-1029.

Kirmayer, L. (1984). Culture, affect, and somatization. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 21, 160-169.

Klein, M. (1935). A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. In Love, guilt and reparation and other works, 1921-1945. New York, Free Press, 1975.

Kluft, R. (Ed.) (1985). Childhood antecedents of multiple personality. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of the self: A systematic approach to the psychoanalytic treatment of the narcissistic personality disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Kohut, H. (1977). The restoration of the self. New York: International Universities Press.

Krystal, H. (1988). Integration and self-healing: Affect, trauma and alexithymia. Hillsdale NJ: The Analytic Press.

Lewinsohn, P., Rohde,P., Seeley, J.R., & Klein, D.N. (1997). Axis II psychopathology as a function of Axis I disorders in childhood and adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 36, 1752-1759.

MacKinnon, R. A., & Michels, R. (1971), The psychiatric interview in clinical practice. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Marty, P., & M'Uzan, M. de (1963). La pensee operatoire. Revue Francaise de Psychoanalyse, 27 (Suppl.), 345-356.

Mooney, M. A. (2003). Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression: An examination of statistical, clinically significant, and technique-specific change. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 349-357.

Laughlin, H. P. (1956). The neuroses in clinical practice (pp. 394-406). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Leichsenring, F. & Leibing, E. (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1610, 1223-1232.

Lewinsohn, P., Rohde, P., Seeley, J.R., & Klein, D. N. (1997). Axis II psychopathology as a function of Axis I disorders in childhood and adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 55 941-948.

Lingiardi, V., Shedler, J., & Gazzillo, F. (2005). Assessing personality change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: A case study. Under review.

McDougall, J. (1989). Theaters of the body: A psychoanalytic approach to psychosomatic illness. New York: Norton.

MacKinnon, R. A., & Michels, R. (1971), The psychiatric interview in clinical practice. Philadelphia: Saunders.

McHugh, P. (2005). Commentary: Striving for Coherence: Psychiatry's Efforts Over Classification. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 2526-2528.

McWilliams, N. (1994). Psychoanalytic diagnosis: Understanding personality structure in the clinical process. New York: Guilford.

Meissner, W. W. (1978). The paranoid process. New York: Jason Aronson.

Meloy, J. R. (1997). The psychology of wickedness: Psychopathy and sadism. Psychiatric Annals, 27, 630-633.

Menaker, E. (1953). Masochism - A defense reaction of the ego. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 22, 205-220.

Miller, A. (1975). Prisoners of childhood: The drama of the gifted child and the search for the true self. New York: Basic Books.

Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., & Silva, P.A. (1998). Comorbid mental disorders: Implications for treatment and sample selection. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 305-311.

Norcross, J. C. (2002). Empirically supported therapy relationships. In J.C.Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients (pp. 3-16). London: Oxford.

Ogloff, J., & Wong, S. (1990). Electrodermal and cardiovascular evidence of a coping response in psychopaths. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17, 231-245.

OPD Working Group. (Ed.). (1996). Operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics foundation and manual. Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber.

OPD Working Group. (Ed.). (2000). Operationalisierte Psychodynamische Diagnostic: Grundlagen und Manual. Bern: Huber.

PDM Task Force. (2006). The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM). Silver Spring, MD: Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations.

PDM Task Force. (2006, website) Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. Retrieved June 15, 2006, from http://www.pdm1.org.

Perlman, S. D. (1999). The therapist's emotional survival: Dealing with the pain of exploring trauma. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Perring, C. Book Review - Rethinking the DSM. Retrieved May 29, 2006, from http://www.geminus.org/books/books.php?type=de&id=1848.

Read, J., Mosher, L. R., & Bentall, R. P. (Eds.) (2004). Models of madness: Psychological, social, and biological approaches to schizophrenia. East Sussex/New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Read, J., & Ross, C. A. (2003). Psychological trauma and psychosis: Another reason why people diagnosed schizophrenic must be offered psychological therapies. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, 247-268.

Raine, A., Venables, P., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 and criminality at age 24. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1003-1007.

Reich, W. (1933). Character analysis. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.

Reik, T. (1941). Masochism in modern man. New York: Farrar, Straus.

Rosenfeld, H. (1987). Afterthought: Changing theories and changing techniques in psychoanalysis. In Impasse and interpretation (pp. 265-279). London: Tavistock.

Sampson, H. (1992). The role of “real” experience in psychopathology and treatment. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 2, 509-528.

Salzman, L. (1980). Treatment of the obsessive personality. New York: Jason Aronson.

Schneider, W., Buchheim, P., Cierpka, M., Dahlbender, R.W., Freyberger, H.J., Grande, T., Hoffman, S.O., Heuft, G., Janssen, P.L., Kuechenhoff, J. Muhs, Rudolf, G. Rueger, U.,A., & Schuessler, G. (2004). Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics: A New Psychodynamic Approach in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. In Rethinking the DSM: A Psychological Perspective. Ed. Beutler, L. & Malik, M. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Schneider, W., Freyberger, H.J., Muhs, A., & Schuessler, G. (Hrsg). (1993). Diagnostik und Klassifikation nach ICD-10, Kap.V(F). Eine krirische Auseinandersetzung. Ergebnisse der ICD-10 Forschungskriterienstudie aus dem Bereich Psychosomatik/Psychotherapie. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Schneider, W. & Freyberger, H.J. (Hrsg). (2000). Was leisted die OPD: Empirische Befunde und klinische Erfahrungen mit der Operationalisierten Psychodynamischen Diagnostic. Bern: Huber.

Schreier, H. A., & Libow, J. A. (1993). Hurting for love: Munchausen by proxy syndrome. New York: Guilford Publications.

Schore, A. N. (2003). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York: Norton.

Seinfeld, J. (1991). The empty core: An object relations approach to psychotherapy of the schizoid personality. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Serin, R. (1991). Psychopathy and violence in criminals. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 423-431.

Silberschatz, G. (2005). Transformative relationships: The control-mastery theory of psychotherapy. New York: Routledge.

Shapiro, D. (1965). Neurotic styles. New York: Basic Books.

Shapiro, D. (1981). Autonomy and rigid character. New York: Basic Books.

Shedler, J., & Westen, D. (2004). Refining personality disorder diagnosis: Integrating science and practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1350-1365.

Spiegel, A. (2005). The dictionary of disorder: How one man revolutionized psychiatry. The New Yorker, 56-63.

Stern, D. B. (1997). Unformulated experience: From dissociation to imagination in psychoanalysis. Hillside, NJ: Analytic Press.

Stiles, W., Agnew-Davies, R., Hardy, G. E., Barkham, M., & Shapiro, D. (1998). Relations of the alliance with psychotherapy outcome: Findings in the second Sheffield Psychotherapy Project. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 791-802.

Stone, M. H. (1993). Abnormalities of personality: Within and beyond the realm of treatment. New York: Norton.

Terr, L. (1995). Unchained memories: True stories of traumatic memories, lost and found. New York: Basic Books.

Thompson, L., Gallagher, D., & Czirr, R. (1988). Personality disorder and outcome in the treatment of late-life depression. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 133-146.

Ulman, R. B., & Brothers, J. (1988). The shattered self: A psychoanalytic study of trauma. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C., & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.) (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.

Varvin, S. (2003). Mental survival strategies after extreme traumatisation. Copenhagen: Multivers.

Wallerstein, R. S. (1967). Reconstruction and mastery in the transference psychosis. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15, 551-583.

Wampold, B. E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate - Models, methods and findings. Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.

Weiss, J. (1993). How psychotherapy works: Process and technique. New York: Guilford Press.

Weiss, J., Sampson, H., & the Mt. Zion Psychotherapy Research Group (1986). The psychoanalytic process: Theory, clinical observation, and empirical research. New York: Guilford Press.

Westen, D. & Arkowitz-Westen, L. (1998). Limitations of Axis II in diagnosing personality pathology in clinical practice. American Journal of Psychiatry. 155, 1767-1771.

Westen, D., Heim, A.K., Morrison, K., Patterson, M., & Campbell, L. (2004). Simplifying Diagnosis using a prototype-matching approach: implications for the next edition of the DSM. In Rethinking the DSM: A Psychological Perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2004). The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: Assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 631-663.

Westen, D., & Shedler, J. (1999b). Revising and assessing Axis II: Part 2: Toward an empirically based and clinically useful classification of personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 273-285.

Zetzel, E. (1968). The so-called good hysteric. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 49, 256-260.

Zur, O. (2005). HIPAA Compliance Kit: Understanding & Applying The Regulations in Psychotherapeutic Practice. New York: Norton.

Zur, O., Nordmarken, N. DSM: Diagnosing for Money and Power Summary of the Critique of the DSM. Retrieved May 29, 2006 from http://zurinstitute.com/dsmcritique.html.

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Books and Articles

American Psychological Association. (2004). Rethinking the DSM: Psychological Perspective. Ed. Beutler, L. & Malik, M. Washington, DC.

Blatt, S. J. (1998). Contributions of psychoanalysis to the understanding and treatment of depression. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 723-752.

Blatt, S. J. (2004). Experiences of depression: Theoretical, clinical, and research perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Blatt, S. J., & Bers, S. A. (1993). The sense of self in depression: A psychodynamic perspective. In Segal, Z. V. & Blatt, S. J. (Eds.) (1993). The self in emotional distress. Cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.

Blatt, S. J. (in press). A fundamental polarity in psychoanalysis: Implications for personality development, psychopathology, and the therapeutic process. Psychoanalytic Inquiry.

Bornstein, R. F. (1993). The dependent personality. New York: Guilford Press.

Brenner, I. (2001). Dissociation of trauma: Theory, phenomenology, and technique. New York: International Universities Press.

Bromberg, P. M. (2001). Standing in the spaces: Essays on clinical process, trauma, and dissociation. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Bursten, B. (1973). The manipulator: A psychoanalytic view. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Carey, B. (2006). For Therapy, a New Guide With a Touch of Personality, New York Times - Science. 1. 24. 2006.

Caplan, P. (1995). They Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Who's Normal. Jackson, MI: DaCapo.

Fisher, S., & Greenberg, R. P. (1985). The scientific credibility of Freud's theories and therapy. New York: Columbia University Press.

Freud, S. (1924). The economic problem of masochism. Standard Edition, 19, 159-170.

Freud, S. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms and anxiety. Standard Edition, 29, 75-175, 1959.

Fromm, E. (1973). The anatomy of human destructiveness. New York: Fawcett.

Gabbard, G. O. (1989). Two subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 53, 527-532.

Gacano, C., & Meloy, J. R. (1994). Rorschach assessment of aggressive and psychopathic personalities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Guntrip, H. (1969). Schizoid phenomena, object relations and the self. New York: International Universities Press.

Henderson, D. K. (1939). Psychopathic states. London: Chapman & Hall.

Hilsenroth, M. J., Ackerman, S. J., Blagys, M. D., Baity, M. R., & Hurvich, M. (2003). The place of annihilation anxiety in psychoanalytic theory. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 51, 579-616.

Horowitz, M. J. (Ed.) (1991). Hysterical personality style and the histrionic personality disorder. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Horowitz, M. J. (1976). Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson Press.

Hunt, W. (1995). The diffident narcissist: A character-type illustrated in The Beast in the Jungle by Henry James. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 76, 1257-1267.

Karon, B. P. (2003). The tragedy of schizophrenia without psychotherapy. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, 89-118.

Kernberg, O. F. (1967). Borderline personality organization. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15, 641-685.

Kernberg, O. F. (1975). Borderline conditions and pathological narcissism. New York: Jason Aronson.

Kernberg, O. F. (1984). Severe personality disorders: Psychotherapeutic strategies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Kernberg, O. F. (1988). Clinical dimensions of masochism. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 36, 1005-1029.

Kirmayer, L. (1984). Culture, affect, and somatization. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 21, 160-169.

Klein, M. (1935). A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states. In Love, guilt and reparation and other works, 1921-1945. New York, Free Press, 1975.

Kluft, R. (Ed.) (1985). Childhood antecedents of multiple personality. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of the self: A systematic approach to the psychoanalytic treatment of the narcissistic personality disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Krystal, H. (1988). Integration and self-healing: Affect, trauma and alexithymia. Hillsdale NJ: The Analytic Press.

MacKinnon, R. A., & Michels, R. (1971), The psychiatric interview in clinical practice. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Laughlin, H. P. (1956). The neuroses in clinical practice (pp. 394-406). Philadelphia: Saunders.

Leichsenring, F. & Leibing, E. (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1610, 1223-1232.

Lingiardi, V., Shedler, J., & Gazzillo, F. (2005). Assessing personality change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: A case study. Under review.

MacKinnon, R. A., & Michels, R. (1971), The psychiatric interview in clinical practice. Philadelphia: Saunders.

McHugh, P. (2005). Commentary: Striving for Coherence: Psychiatry's Efforts Over Classification. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 2526-2528.

McWilliams, N. (1994). Psychoanalytic diagnosis: Understanding personality structure in the clinical process. New York: Guilford.

Meissner, W. W. (1978). The paranoid process. New York: Jason Aronson.

Meloy, J. R. (1997). The psychology of wickedness: Psychopathy and sadism. Psychiatric Annals, 27, 630-633.

Menaker, E. (1953). Masochism-A defense reaction of the ego. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 22, 205-220.

Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., & Silva, P.A. (1998). Comorbid mental disorders: Implications for treatment and sample selection. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 305-311.

Norcross, J. C. (2002). Empirically supported therapy relationships. In J.C.Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy Relationships that Work: Therapist Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients (pp. 3-16). London: Oxford.

Ogloff, J., & Wong, S. (1990). Electrodermal and cardiovascular evidence of a coping response in psychopaths. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17, 231-245.

OPD Working Group. (Ed.). (1996). Operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics foundation and manual. Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber.

OPD Working Group. (Ed.). (2000). Operationalisierte Psychodynamische Diagnostic: Grundlagen und Manual. Bern: Huber.

PDM Task Force. (2006). The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM). Silver Spring, MD: Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations.

Perlman, S. D. (1999). The therapist's emotional survival: Dealing with the pain of exploring trauma. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Read, J., Mosher, L. R., & Bentall, R. P. (Eds.) (2004). Models of madness: Psychological, social, and biological approaches to schizophrenia. East Sussex/New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Read, J., & Ross, C. A. (2003). Psychological trauma and psychosis: Another reason why people diagnosed schizophrenic must be offered psychological therapies. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31, 247-268.

Raine, A., Venables, P., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 and criminality at age 24. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1003-1007.

Reik, T. (1941). Masochism in modern man. New York: Farrar, Straus.

Rosenfeld, H. (1987). Afterthought: Changing theories and changing techniques in psychoanalysis. In Impasse and interpretation (pp. 265-279). London: Tavistock.

Sampson, H. (1992). The role of "real" experience in psychopathology and treatment. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 2, 509-528.

Salzman, L. (1980). Treatment of the obsessive personality. New York: Jason Aronson.

Schneider, W., Buchheim, P., Cierpka, M., Dahlbender, R.W., Freyberger, H.J., Grande, T., Hoffman, S.O., Heuft, G., Janssen, P.L., Kuechenhoff, J. Muhs, Rudolf, G. Rueger, U.,A., & Schuessler, G. (2004). Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics: A New Psychodynamic Approach in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. In Rethinking the DSM: A Psychological Perspective. Ed. Beutler, L. & Malik, M. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

Schneider, W., Freyberger, H.J., Muhs, A., & Schuessler, G. (Hrsg). (1993). Diagnostik und Klassifikation nach ICD-10, Kap.V(F). Eine krirische Auseinandersetzung. Ergebnisse der ICD-10 Forschungskriterienstudie aus dem Bereich Psychosomatik/Psychotherapie. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Schneider, W. & Freyberger, H.J. (Hrsg). (2000). Was leisted die OPD: Empirische Befunde und klinische Erfahrungen mit der Operationalisierten Psychodynamischen Diagnostic. Bern: Huber.

Schreier, H. A., & Libow, J. A. (1993). Hurting for love: Munchausen by proxy syndrome. New York: Guilford Publications.

Schore, A. N. (2003). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York: Norton.

Seinfeld, J. (1991). The empty core: An object relations approach to psychotherapy of the schizoid personality. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Serin, R. (1991). Psychopathy and violence in criminals. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 423-431.

Silberschatz, G. (2005). Transformative relationships: The control-mastery theory of psychotherapy. New York: Routledge.

Shapiro, D. (1965). Neurotic styles. New York: Basic Books.

Shapiro, D. (1981). Autonomy and rigid character. New York: Basic Books.

Shedler, J., & Westen, D. (2004). Refining personality disorder diagnosis: Integrating science and practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1350-1365.

Spiegel, A. (2005). The dictionary of disorder: How one man revolutionized psychiatry. The New Yorker, 56-63.

Stern, D. B. (1997). Unformulated experience: From dissociation to imagination in psychoanalysis. Hillside, NJ: Analytic Press.

Stone, M. H. (1993). Abnormalities of personality: Within and beyond the realm of treatment. New York: Norton.

Terr, L. (1995). Unchained memories: True stories of traumatic memories, lost and found. New York: Basic Books.

Thompson, L., Gallagher, D., & Czirr, R. (1988). Personality disorder and outcome in the treatment of late-life depression. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 133-146.

Ulman, R. B., & Brothers, J. (1988). The shattered self: A psychoanalytic study of trauma. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C., & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.) (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.

Varvin, S. (2003). Mental survival strategies after extreme traumatisation. Copenhagen: Multivers.

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