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Trauma & PTSD
Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation

Resources

This resource page is part of the following Online Courses
Crisis & Trauma: Identification, Assessment and Treatment for Acute and Prolonged Symptoms
Post-Traumatic Growth: Advanced Clinical Applications
Post-Traumatic Growth: Beyond Survival and Recovery
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Defined, Described, Detailed, Debated
Treating Trauma, PTSD and Traumatic Brain Injury
Understanding And Treating Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma
Veterans: Assessment and Screening for PTSD & Suicidality

CE Credits for Psychologists. CE Credits (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.

 

 

Guidelines

American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines on PTSD (2/2017)

 

PTSD & TBI

For Clients

What Makes Some People More Resilient to Trauma Than Others?

Psychomotor Therapy (Structure) for PTSD, as employed by Dr. Van der Kolk

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

National Center For Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

National Veterans' Foundation

ePluribus Media

Sidran Institute: Traumatic Stress Education & Advocacy

Gift from Within

Anxiety and Depression Association of America: Helpful Podcasts and Videos on PTSD

A New Workbook for People Suffering with PTSD: A Workbook on ACT for PTSD

The Guide to PTSD

Treatment Guide to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Addiction

Loma Linda University Brain Injury Program

Mayo Clinic

The Brain Injury Recovery Network/

BrainLine.org

Traumatic Brain Injury Forum

Traumatic Brain Injury: Neurology Channel

Brain Injury Center: Legal support for those with TBI and their families

Traumatic Brain Injury: Information for those with TBI

TBI Resource Guide


Holocaust Survivors and Descendants:

Amcha

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For Clinicians

Psychomotor Therapy (Structure) for PTSD, as employed by Dr. Van der Kolk

Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of PTSD

DoD Deployment Health Clinical Center

Using Virtual Reality to Treat PTSD

Development of a VR therapy application for Iraq war military personnel with PTSD

Virtual Iraq: initial results from a VR exposure therapy application for combat-related PTSD

David Baldwin's Trauma Information Pages

Anxiety Disorders Association of America

The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies

The National Child Traumatic Stress Network

Healing Combat Trauma

Healing Those Who Serve: Education & Treatment

Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Treatment Algorithm

Studies Examining the Efficacy of EMDR in the Treatment of PTSD

EMDR Institute

Developmental Needs-Meeting Strategy (DNMS)

Rapid Eye Technology (RET)

Releasing PTSD: Steve Andreas Works With an Iraq Veteran

Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University

Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center

CEMM Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Center for Disease Control and Prevention provider toolkit for concussion

Co-Occurring Conditions Toolkit: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Health

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PTSD and Service Dogs

Sapir Weiss, Owner, Trainer and Leader of the Pack

New treatment for a war that never ends

The use of psychiatric service dogs in the treatment of veterans with PTSD: A study proposal and abstract

Dogs and PTSD U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

Canines 4 Hope

SERVICE DOG TASKS for PSYCHIATRIC DISABILITIES, Tasks to mitigate certain disabling illnesses classified as mental impairments under The Americans with Disabilities Act

How Dogs Can Help Veterans Overcome PTSD, New research finds that "man's best friend" could be lifesavers for veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Smithsonian Magazine.

Service Dogs Can Reduce PTSD Symptoms in Veterans

Service Dog Helps Veteran with PTSD, Video

PTSD Service Dog - task related training, Video

Wounded Warriors, Healing Hounds , Video Documentary

Rebecca’s War Dog of the Week: A Veteran and His Therapy Dog, Iris

Psychiatric Service Dogs and PTSD Legislation proposing a pilot program that would provide service dogs to veterans with PTSD.

Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD Pairing specially trained therapy dogs with PTSD vets.

Animal-assisted therapy can help

How Dogs Can Help Veterans Overcome PTSD Paws for Purple Hearts, one of four experimental programs nationwide that pair veterans afflicted by PTSD with Labrador and golden retrievers.

Therapy dogs helping with more than PTSD, TBI Veterans Moving Forward provides service dogs, at no cost, to veterans with physical and mental health challenges, including those suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injuries.

Canine Therapy for Military PTSD The US Army is using canine therapy to help solders recovery from PTSD.

Dogs go the distance: Program provides service to veterans with PTSD Operation Wolfhound

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TBI References & Research

Adams, JH, Graham, DI and Scott G, et al. (1980). Brain damage in fatal non-missile head injury. J Clin Pathol 33: 1132-1145.

Anderson, DW and Kalsbeek, WD. (1980). The national head and spinal cord injury survey: assessment of some uncertainties affecting the findings. Journal of Neurosurgery. November Supplement: S32-34.

Baguley, IJ, Cooper, J and Felmingham, K. (2006). Aggressive behavior following traumatic brain injury: how common is common?. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Jan-Feb 21(1):45-56.

Bell, KR and Sandell, ME.(1998). Brain Injury rehabilitation. Post acute rehabilitation and community integration. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79: S21-S25.

Bogner, JA, Corrigan, JD and Mysiw, WJ, et al.(2001). A comparison of substance abuse and violence in the prediction of long-term rehabilitation outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. May 82(5):571-7.

Bogner, JA, Corrigan, JD, and Stange, M, et al.(1999). Reliability of the Agitated Behavior Scale. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Feb 14(1):91-6.

Bohnen, NI, Jolles, J and Twijnstra A, et al. (1995). Late neurobehavioral symptoms after mild head injury. Brain Injury 9: 27-33.

Brooke, MM, Patterson, DR and Questad, KA, et al. (1992). The treatment of agitation during initial hospitalization after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Oct 73(10):917-21.

Brown, AW, Malec, JF and McClelland, RL, et al.(2005). Clinical elements that predict outcome after traumatic brain injury: a prospective multicenter recursive partitioning (decision-tree) analysis. J Neurotrauma. Oct 22(10):1040-51.

Buller, HR, Agnelli, G and Hull, RD, et al. (2004). Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest. Sep 126(3 Suppl):401S-428S.

Bushnik, T, Englander, J and Duong T. (2004). Medical and social issues related to posttraumatic seizures in persons with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Jul-Aug 19(4):296-304.

Chambers, J, Cohen, SS and Hemminger, L, et al. (1996). Mild traumatic brain injuries in low-risk trauma patients. J Trauma. Dec 41(6):976-80.

Chamelian, L and Feinstein, A.(2006). The effect of major depression on subjective and objective cognitive deficits in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 18(1):33-8.

Chatham, Showalter PE and Kimmel, DN. (2000).Agitated symptom response to divalproex following acute brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 12(3):395-7.

Chesnut, RM, Carney, N and Maynard, H, et al.(1999). Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury. Rockville, Md: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment 2, 1-176. http://hstat.nlm.nih.gov/hq/Hquest/screen/DirectAccess/db/3309 Retrieved February, 2003.

Chiaretti, A, Antonelli, A and Mastrangelo, A, et al. (2008).Interleukin-6 and nerve growth factor upregulation correlates with improved outcome in children with severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. Mar 25(3):225-34.

Cifu, DX, Kaelin, DL and Wall, BE. (1996). Deep venous thrombosis: incidence on admission to a brain injury rehabilitation program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Nov 77(11):1182-5.

Cockrell, J.(1996). Paediatric brain injury rehabilitation. In: Horn LJ, Zasler ND, editors. Medical rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury. Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus. Pps. 171-198.

Corrigan, JD.(1989). Development of a scale for assessment of agitation following traumatic brain injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. Mar 11(2):261-77.

Corrigan, JD, Bogner, JA and Mysiw WJ, et al.(2001). Life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Dec 16(6):543-55.

Davis, DP, Serrano, JA and Vilke, GM, et al.(2006). The predictive value of field versus arrival Glasgow Coma Scale score and TRISS calculations in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. May 60(5):985-90.

Deb, S and Crownshaw, T. (2004). The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of behaviour disorders in traumatic brain injury patients. Brain Inj. Jan 18(1):1-31.

Dikmen, SS, Bombardier, CH and Machamer, JE, et al.(2004). Natural history of depression in traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Sep 85(9):1457-64.

Dixon, CE, Kraus, MF, Ma, X., Yan, HQ, Griffith, RG, Wolfson, BM and Marion DW. (1999). Amantadine improves water maze performance following traumatic brain injury in rats. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 14: 285-294.

Eker, C, Schalen, W, Asgeirsson, B, Grande, P-O and Nordstrom C-H. (2000). Reduced mortality after severe head injury will increase the demands for rehabilitation services. Brain Injury 14(7):605-619

Elovic, E and Zafonte, RD. (2001). Spasticity management in traumatic brain injury. Phys Med Rehabil State Art Rev. 15:327-48.

Evans, RW. (1992). The postconcussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury. Neurologic Clinics 10:815-847.

Feeney, DM and Sutton, RL. (1987). Pharmacotherapy for recovery of function after brain injury. CRC Crit Rev Neurobiol 3: 135-197.

Flint, AC, Manley, GT and Gean, AD, et al. (2008). Post-operative expansion of hemorrhagic contusions after unilateral decompressive hemicraniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. Mar 17.

Fortune, N and Wen, X.(1999). The definition, incidence and prevalence of acquired brain injury in Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Catalogue DIS 15.)

Geerts, WH, Pineo, GF and Heit, JA, et al. (2004). Prevention of venous thromboembolism: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest. Sep 126(3 Suppl):338S-400S.

Gordon, WA, Brown, M and Sliwinski, M, et al. (1998). The enigma of "hidden" traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Dec 13(6):39-56.

Greenwald, BD, Burnett, DM and Miller, MA. (2003). Congenital and acquired brain injury. 1. Brain injury: epidemiology and pathophysiology. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Mar 84(3 Suppl 1):S3-S7.

Gronwall, D. (1989). Cumulative and persisting effects of concussion on attention and cognition. In Levin, HS, Eisenberg, HM and Benton, AL(eds): Mild Brain Injury, pp.153-162. Oxford University Press, New York.

Hammill, RW, Woolf, PD and McDonald, JV et al. (1987). Catecholamines predict outcome in traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol 21: 438-443.

Hammond, FM and McDeavitt, JT. (1999). Cognitive and behavior effects of brain injury. In: Rosenthal M, Griffith ER, Kreutzer JS, et al, eds. Rehabilitation of the Adult and Child. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis. Pps.53-73.

Harrison-Felix, C, Whiteneck, G and Devivo, MJ, et al. (2006). Causes of death following 1 year postinjury among individuals with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Jan-Feb 21(1):22-33.

Hiler, M, Czosnyka, M and Hutchinson, P, et al.(2006). Predictive value of initial computerized tomography scan, intracranial pressure, and state of autoregulation in patients with traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. May 104(5):731-7.

Hoofien, D, Gilboa, A, Vakil, E and Donovick, PJ. (2001). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) 10-20 years later: a comprehensive study of psychiatric symptomatology, cognitive abilities and psychosocial functioning. Brain Inj 15(3):189-209

Horn, LJ.(1992). Systems of care for the person with TBI. Phys Med Rehab Clin North Am 3: 475-492.

Jennett, B and Bond, M.(1975). Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Lancet. Mar 1 , 1(7905):480-4. http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/46957

Jennison, Mary Ellen. (1993). "Project Able: Academic Bridges to Learning Effectiveness." Report.

Jorge, RE, Robinson, RG and Moser, D, et al.(2004). Major depression following traumatic brain injury. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Jan 61(1):42-50.

Jorge, RE and Starkstein, SE.(2005). Pathophysiologic aspects of major depression following traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Nov-Dec 20(6):475-87.

Joseph, AB and Wroblewski, B.(1995). Depression, antidepressants and traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 10: 90-95.

Kalsbeek, WD, McLaurin, RL, Harris, BS and Miller, JD. (1980). The national head and spinal cord injury survey: major findings. Journal of Neurosurgery. November; Supplement:S19-31

Katz, DI.(1992). Neuropathology and neurobehavioural recovery from closed head injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 7: 1-15.

Kay, T, Harrington, DE and Adams, R, et al.(1993). Definition of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 8: 86-87.

Keith, RA, Granger, CV and Hamilton, BB, et al.(1987). The functional independence measure: a new tool for rehabilitation. Adv Clin Rehabil. 1:6-18.

Kerr, M and Kraus, MF (1998) Genetics and the central nervous system: apolipoprotein E and brain injury. AACN Clinical Issues: Advanced Practice in Acute and Critical Care 9(4): 524-530.

Kerr, ME, Kraus, M, Marion, D and Kamboh I (1999). Evaluation of apolipoprotein E genotypes on cerebral blood flow and metabolism following traumatic brain injury. Adv Exp Med Biol 471: 117-24.

Khateb, A, Ammann, J and Annoni, JM, et al.(2005). Cognition-enhancing effects of donepezil in traumatic brain injury. Eur Neurol. 54(1):39-45.

King, JT Jr, Carlier, PM and Marion, DW. (2005). Early Glasgow Outcome Scale scores predict long-term functional outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. Sep 22(9):947-54.

Kraus, JK, Black, MA and Hessol, N, et al.(1984). The incidence of acute brain injury and serious impairment in a defined population. Am J Epidemiol 119: 186-201.

Kraus, MF (1995). Neuropsychiatric sequelae of stroke and traumatic brain injury: The role of psychostimulants. International Journal of Psychiatry and Medicine 25: 39-51

Kraus, MF and Maki, PM (1997). The effect of amantadine hydrochloride on neuropsychiatric sequelae of brain injury: Case studies and review. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 9 (2): 222-230.

Kraus, JF and McArthur, DL. (1998). Incidence and prevalence of, and costs associated with, traumatic brain injury. Rosenthal, M., Griffith, ER and Kreutzer, JS, eds. Rehabilitation of the adult and child with traumatic brain injury. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis. pps. 3-18.

Kraus, J, Schaffer, K and Ayers, K, et al. (2005). Physical complaints, medical service use, and social and employment changes following mild traumatic brain injury: a 6-month longitudinal study. J Head Trauma Rehabil. May-Jun 20(3):239-56.

Langlois, JA, Rutland-Brown, W and Thomas, KE. (2006). Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Lee, H, Kim, SW and Kim, JM, et al.(2005). Comparing effects of methylphenidate, sertraline and placebo on neuropsychiatric sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury. Hum Psychopharmacol. Mar 20(2):97-104.

Leone, H and Polsonetti, BW.(2005). Amantadine for traumatic brain injury: does it improve cognition and reduce agitation?. J Clin Pharm Ther. Apr 30(2):101-4.

Levin, HS, Eisenberg, HM and Benton, AL(eds). (1991). Frontal Lobe Function and Dysfunction. Oxford University Press, New York, 1991.

Levin, H S and Kraus, MF (1994). The frontal lobes and traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 6: 443-454.

Levin, HS, Mattis, S and Ruff, RM, et al. (1987). Neurobehavioral outcome following minor head injury: a three-center study. J Neurosurg66: 234-243.

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Levin, H, Williams, D and Eisenberg H, et al. (1992). Serial magnetic resonance imaging and neurobehavioral findings after mild to moderate closed head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55: 255-262.

Lewin, ICF. (1992). The cost of disorders of the brain. Washington, D.C: The National Foundation for the Brain, 1992.

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McDonald, CM, Jaffe, KM and Fay, GC, et al. (1994). Comparison of indices of traumatic brain injury severity as predictors of neurobehavioral outcome in children. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Mar 75(3):328-37.

Melamed, E, Robinson, D and Halperin, N, et al. (2002). Brain injury-related heterotopic bone formation: treatment strategy and results. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. Sep 81(9):670-4.

Nickels, JL, Schneider, WN and Dombovy, ML, et al.(1994). Clinical use of amantadine in brain injury rehabilitation. Brain Inj. Nov-Dec ;8(8):709-18.

NIH. (1998). Rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury. Paper from: NIH Consensus Development Conference.

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Pachet, A, Friesen, S and Winkelaar, D, et al. (2003). Beneficial behavioural effects of lamotrigine in traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. Aug 17(8):715-22.

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Powell, J, Heslin, J and Greenwood, R.(2002). Community based rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury: a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72: 193-202.

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Critique of Current Attitudes and Approaches to PTSD

Critique of PTSD Diagnosis by Dr. Ofer Zur, interview with Dr. Van Nuys Transcript

Misguided use of meds with War Veterans

Dr. Martin Williams' critique of the use, overuse and abuse of PTSD diagnosis

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PTSD Updates

January 2015: "After PTSD, More Trauma"

2014: Expressive writing and post-traumatic growth

In the journal Traumatology, authors Hannah Stockton, Stephen Joseph, and Nigel Hunt describe an Internet-based study using expressive writing to facilitate post-traumatic growth. They find that 10 participants who wrote for 15 minutes on three separate occasions three days apart showed a significant decrease over a control group in intrusive thoughts and avoidant cognitions. The complete study may be found here:

Stockton, Hannah; Joseph, Stephen; Hunt, Nigel Traumatology: An International Journal, Vol 20(2), Jun 2014, 75-83. doi: 10.1037/h0099377

2014: DSM-5 Updates

In the DSM-5, PTSD has become part of a larger section on Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders. While the specific changes to the criteria for PTSD have been provided in another document, changes to the other diagnostic categories in this section follow:

“For a diagnosis of acute stress disorder, qualifying traumatic events are now explicit as to whether they were experienced directly, witnessed, or experienced indirectly. Also, the DSM-IV Criterion A2 regarding the subjective reaction to the traumatic event (e.g., experiencing “fear, helplessness, or horror") has been eliminated. Adjustment disorders are reconceptualised as a heterogeneous array of stress-response syndromes that occur after exposure to a distressing (traumatic or nontraumatic) event, rather than as a residual category for individuals who exhibit clinically significant distress but whose symptoms do not meet criteria for a more discrete disorder (as in DSM-IV).

DSM-5 criteria for PTSD differ significantly from the DSM-IV criteria. The stressor criterion (Criteria A) is more explicit with regard to events that qualify as 'traumatic' experiences. Also, DSM-IV Criterion A2 (subjective reaction) has been eliminated. Whereas there were three major symptom clusters in DSM-IV – reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and arousal – there are now four symptom clusters in DSM-5, because the avoidance/numbing cluster is divided into two distinct clusters: avoidance and persistent negative alterations in cognitions and mood. This latter category, which retains most of the DSM-IV numbing symptoms, also includes new or reconceptualised symptoms, such as persistent negative emotional states. The final cluster – alterations in arousal and reactivity – retains most of the DSM-IV arousal symptoms. It also includes irritable behavior or angry outbursts and reckless or self-destructive behavior. PTSD is now developmentally sensitive in that diagnostic thresholds have been lowered for children and adolescents. Furthermore, separate criteria have been added for children age 6 years or younger with this disorder.

The DSM-IV childhood diagnosis reactive attachment disorder had two subtypes: emotionally withdrawn/inhibited and indiscriminately social/disinhibited. In DSM-5, these subtypes are defined as distinct disorders: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder."

Acute Stress Disorder Diagnostic Criteria, DSM-5

  1. Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation in one (or more) of the following ways:
    1. Directly experiencing the traumatic event(s).
    2. Witnessing, in person, the event(s) as it occurred to others.
    3. Learning that the traumatic event(s) occurred to a close family member or close friend. In cases of actual or threatened death of a family member or friend, the event(s) must have been violent or accidental.
    4. Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic event(s) (e.g., first responders collecting human remains; police officers repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse). `

      Note: This does not apply to exposure through electronic media, television, movies, or pictures, unless this exposure is work related.

  2. Presence of nine (or more) of the following symptoms from any of the five categories of intrusion, negative mood, dissociation, avoidance, and arousal, beginning or worsening after the traumatic event(s) occurred:
    1. Intrusion Symptoms

    2. Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic event(s). Note: In children, repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the traumatic event(s) are expressed.
    3. Recurrent distressing dreams in which the content and/or affect of the dream are related to the event(s). Note: In children, there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content.
    4. Dissociative reactions (e.g., flashbacks) in which the individual feels or acts as if the traumatic event(s) were recurring. (Such reactions may occur on a continuum, with the most extreme expression being a complete loss of awareness of present surroundings.) Note: In children, trauma-specific re-enactment may occur in play.
    5. Intense or prolonged psychological distress or marked physiological reactions in response to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event(s).
    6. Negative Mood

    7. Persistent inability to experience positive emotions (e.g., inability to experience happiness, satisfaction, or loving feelings).
    8. Dissociative Symptoms

    9. An altered sense of the reality of one's surroundings or oneself (e.g., seeing oneself from another's perspective, being in a daze, time slowing).
    10. Inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic event(s) (typically due to dissociative amnesia and not to other factors such as head injury, alcohol, or drugs).
    11. Avoidance Symptoms

    12. Efforts to avoid distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s).
    13. Efforts to avoid external reminders (people, places, conversations, activities, objects, situations) that arouse distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s).
    14. Arousal Symptoms

    15. Sleep disturbance (e.g., difficulty falling or staying asleep, restless sleep).
    16. Irritable behavior and angry outbursts (with little or no provocation), typically expressed as verbal or physical aggression toward people or objects.
    17. Hypervigilance.
    18. Problems with concentration.
    19. Exaggerated startle response.
  3. Duration of the disturbance (symptoms in Criterion B) is 3 days to 1 month after trauma exposure.

    Note: Symptoms typically begin immediately after the trauma, but persistence for at least 3 days and up to a month is needed to meet disorder criteria.

  4. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
  5. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., medication or alcohol) or another medical condition (e.g., mild traumatic brain injury) and is not better explained by brief psychotic disorder.

Reactive Attachment Disorder, DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria

  1. A consistent pattern of inhibited, emotionally withdrawn behavior toward adult caregivers, manifested by both of the following:
    1. The child rarely or minimally seeks comfort when distressed.
    2. The child rarely or minimally responds to comfort when distressed.
  2. A persistent social and emotional disturbance characterized by at least two of the following:
    1. Minimal social and emotional responsiveness to others.
    2. Limited positive affect.
    3. Episodes of unexplained irritability, sadness, or fearfulness that are evident even during nonthreatening interactions with adult caregivers.
  3. The child has experienced a pattern of extremes of insufficient care as evidenced by at least one of the following:
    1. Social neglect or deprivation in the form of persistent lack of having basic emotional needs for comfort, stimulation, and affection met by caregiving adults.
    2. Repeated changes of primary caregivers that limit opportunities to form stable attachments (e.g. frequent changes in foster care).
    3. Rearing in unusual settings that severely limit opportunities to form selective attachments (e.g., institutions with high child-to-caregiver ratios).
  4. The care in Criterion C is presumed to be responsible for the disturbed behavior in Criterion A (e.g., the disturbances in Criterion A began following the lack of adequate care in Criterion C).
  5. The criteria are not met for autism spectrum disorder.
  6. The disturbance is evident before age 5 years.
  7. The child has a developmental age of at least 9 months.

Specify if:
Persistent: The disorder has been present for more than 12 months.

Specify current severity:
Reactive attachment disorder is specified as severe when a child exhibits all symptoms of the disorder, with each symptom manifesting at relatively high levels.

2013:

Why Some Soldiers Develop PTSD While Others Don't

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Post Traumatic Growth

General

Post-Traumatic Growth This video introduces Post-Traumatic Growth fundamental concepts, clinical implications, and current research. By first describing what classifies as a traumatic event and then processing the ways in which trauma can be growth producing, this video present the general process model for Post-Traumatic Growth as well as the different forms of growth that occur post trauma.

Definitions

Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (by APA)

Posttraumatic Growth Research Group, The University of North Carolina

Challenging the Stereotype of the Paralyzed Trauma Victim

What Doesn't Kill Us: The new psychology of posttraumatic growth

What is PTG (PostTraumatic Growth)?

Post-Traumatic Stress's Surprisingly Positive Flip Side

What is Post Traumatic Growth (PTG)?

The Upside of Trauma?

The Foundations of Postraumatic Growth: New Considerations

Posttraumatic Growth: Conceptual Foundations and Empirical Evidence

Vicarious Posttraumatic Growth in Psychotherapy

A Correlational Test of the Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth, Religion, and Cognitive Processing

Examining posttraumatic growth among Japanese university students

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  • Segal, J., & Jaffe, J. (2014). Attachment and adult relationships: How the attachment bond shapes adult relationships. Retrieved August 26, 2014.
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  • Tedeschi, R.G. & Calhoun, L.G. (2004). Post-traumatic growth: A new perspective on psychotraumatology. Psychiatric Times, 64 (2): 165-171.
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  • Tedeschi. R. G., Calhoun, L. G. & Cooper. L. (2000). Rumination and post-traumatic growth in older adults. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
  • Ullrich, P.M. & Lutgendorf, K. (2002). Journaling about stressful events: Effects of cognitive processing and emotional expression. Annuls of Behavioral Medicine, 24: 244-250.
  • United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2014). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Retrieved 1-28-15.
  • Weiss, T. (2004). Correlates of posttraumatic growth in husbands of breast cancer survivors. Psycho-Oncology 13(4): 260-268. DOI: 10.1002/pon.735
  • Werner, E., & Smith, R. (1992). Overcoming the Odds: High-Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood. New York: Cornell University Press.
  • Whitfield, C. (2010). Psychiatric drugs as agents of trauma. The International Journal of Risk and Safety. Medicine, 22 (4): 195–207.
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  • Zerach, P., Solomon, F., Cohen, M., & Ein-Dor, H. (2013). PTSD, resilience and post- traumatic growth among ex-prisoners of war and combat veterans. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci, 50 (2): 1123-1125.
  • Zoellner, T., & Maercker, A. (2006). Post-traumatic growth in clinical psychology: A critical review and introduction of a two component model. Clinical Psychology Review, 26: 626-653.
  • Zoellner, T., Rabe, S., Karl, A., & Maercker, A. (2008). Post-traumatic growth in accident survivors: Openness and optimism as predictors of its constructive or illusory sides. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(3): 245-263.

 
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Crisis & Trauma

Treatment for Trauma

 
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Organizations

American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC)

American Red Cross

American Trauma Society (ATS)
An organization supporting trauma care and trauma prevention in the United States as well as advocate for trauma victims and their families.

Amnesty International

Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA)

Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF)
Mission is to improve the outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients by developing best practice guidelines, conducting clinical research and educating medical personnel.

Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture

Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation

Child Trauma Academy (CTA)
Helps improve the lives of traumatized and maltreated children - through education, service delivery and program consultation.

Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking

Crisis Care Network

European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS )

Gift from Within

Human Rights Watch

International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF)

International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims

International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS)

Israel Center for the Treatment of Psychotrauma

National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN)

National Center for PTSD

Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA)
Promotes excellence in care for the injured patient, through provision of scientific forums and support of musculoskeletal research and education of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the public.

PTSD Alliance

Rural Emergency Medical Services & Trauma Technical Assistance Center(REMSTTAC)
Serves as a national focal point for the dissemination of information on rural and frontier emergency medical services (EMS) and trauma care. REMSTTAC can be accessed by a broad range of rural and frontier EMS providers including federal grant recipients, state EMS and rural health offices, and their constituencies including rural hospitals and communities.

Swiss Foundation of Terre des Hommes (Child Trafficking)

Other Resources for Trauma Survivors

  • Emotional and Psychological Trauma:
    Nice explanation of the causes, symptoms, effects, & treatments of psychological or emotional trauma -- broader than PTSD.
  • APA Topics: Trauma:
    American Psychological Association webpage offers information on emotional trauma.
  • Trauma Central:
    Hope Morrow provides a thorough collection of links to trauma related articles across the web.

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Information on Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: CISD

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Resources Provided by Types of Trauma

 

For Those Suffering with Combat Trauma

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For Survivors of Sexual Abuse

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For Crime Victims

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PTSD in Police, Fire & EMS Workers

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For Survivors of Holocaust & Torture

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Assessment Tools

  • Trauma Exposure Measures
    These assessment instruments measure the types of trauma a person has been exposed to, or the degree of severity of the traumatic event someone experienced. For each measure, a brief description, sample items, versions, and references are provided. Information on how to obtain the measure is also provided. The chart provides a comparison of the trauma exposure measures.
  • Combat Exposure Scale
    For use with those who have provided military service.
  • Evaluation of Lifetime Stressors
    The Evaluation of Lifetime Stressors (ELS) is an assessment protocol for adolescents or adults comprised of a self-report questionnaire and semi-structured interview that examines a range of traumatic experiences across the lifespan.
  • Life Stressor Checklist - Revised (LSC-R)
    The Life Stressor Checklist-Revised is a self-report measure that assesses traumatic or stressful life events. The questionnaire includes 30 life events, including experiences with natural disasters, physical or sexual assault, death of a relative and other events and follows a yes/no format.
  • Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ)
    The TLEQ is a 23-item self-report measure of 22 types of potentially traumatic events including natural disasters, exposure to warfare, robbery involving a weapon, physical abuse and being stalked.
  •  
    Trauma Sequelae and PTSD Measures:

  • Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI)
    The TSI is used in the evaluation of acute and chronic posttraumatic symptomatology, including the effects of rape, spouse abuse, physical assault, combat experiences, major accidents, and natural disasters, as well as the lasting sequelae of childhood abuse and other early traumatic events.
  • Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children™ (TSCC™)
    The TSCC is a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress and related psychological symptomatology in children ages 8-16 years who have experienced traumatic events (e.g., physical or sexual abuse, major loss, natural disaster, witnessing violence).
  • Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children™ (TSCYC™)
    The TSCYC was developed to be the first fully standardized and normed broadband trauma measure for children as young as 3 years of age. Its 90items can be completed by an adult caretaker.
  • Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress™ (DAPS™)
    The DAPS is a 104-item, detailed, and comprehensive clinical measure of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress in individuals ages 18 years and older who have a history of exposure to one or more potentially traumatic events.
  • Multiscale Dissociation Inventory (MDI)
    The MDI is a 30-item self-report test of dissociative symptomatology. The scales of the MDI include Disengagement, Depersonalization, Derealization, Emotional Constriction/Numbing, Memory Disturbance, Identity Dissociation, and a Total Dissociation Score.


Additional References

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