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Fees, Insurance and Coding In Psychotherapy & Counseling

Resources

This resource page is part of an Online Course
Fees In Therapy: Clinical, Ethical & Management Considerations

CE Credits for Psychologists. CE Credits (CEUs) for LMFTs, Social Workers, Counselors and Nurses.
CE Approvals by BBS-CA, ASWB, NBCC, NAADAC, CA-BRN & more.
Zur Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Zur Institute maintains responsibility for this program and its content.

 

 

Fees in Therapy

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Medical & Medicare Billing

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Insurance Reimbursement

 
Insurance Panels

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ObamaCare - Affordable Health Care

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Resources on Insurance Fraud

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Meaning of Money

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Bartering

 
To Charge or Not to Charge: The Dilemma of Missed Sessions

 
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Codes of Ethics on Fees

 
CPT Codes in Billing

 
ICD Codes (International Classification of Diseases)

  • ICD implementation: Aim for the Moving Target
    "First it was Oct. 1, 2013. Then Oct. 1, 2014. Now it's Oct. 1, 2015. Though the deadline for implementing the ICD-10-CM diagnostic coding system in the United States seems to be a moving target, it's never too soon to prepare for the switch. The April 1 Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, which postponed a drastic 24 percent Medicare rate cut, also included a single sentence that delayed implementation of the ICD-10-CM code to Oct. 1, 2015."
    From: APA's Monitor in Psychology, 6/2014
  • New law moves ICD-10-CM implementation to 2015
  • WHO

 
Additional References

  • Altmann, U., Wittmann, W. W., Steffanowski, A., von Heymann, F., Bruckmayer, E., Pfaffinger, I., & Steyer, R. (2014). Non-completion of insurance-funded outpatient psychotherapy: frequency, risk factors, outcome. Psychiatrische Praxis, 41(6), 305-312. DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1370172
  • Bishop, D. R. and Eppolito, J. M. (1992). The clinical management of client dynamics and fees for psychotherapy: Implications for research and practice. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 29(4), 545-553.
  • Blackmon W. D. (1993). Are psychoanalytic billing practices ethical? American Journal of Psychotherapy. 47(4), 613-620.
  • Clark, P., & Kimberly, C. (2014). Impact of fees among low-income clients in a training clinic. Contemporary Family Therapy, 36(3), 363-368. doi:10.1007/s10591-014-9303-9
  • Clark, P., & Sims, P. L. (2014). The practice of fee setting and collection: Implications for clinical training programs. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 42(5), 386-397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926187.2013.857914
  • Corbett, A. (2000). Psychotherapy for those who do not pay -understanding money in the therapeutic relationship. http://www.respond.org.uk/business/confertalk.html.
  • Cummings, N. A. (1995). Unconscious fiscal convenience. Psychotherapy in Private Practice 14(2), 23-28.
  • Erle, J. B.(1993). On the setting of analytic fees. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 61, 106-10
  • Fay, A. (1995). Ethical implications of charging for missed sessions. Psychological Reports. 77, 1251-1259.
  • Fenichel, O. (1954). The drive to amass wealth, in The Collected Papers of Otto Fenichel: Second Series. New York, Norton, pp 89-108.
  • Friedman, R. (1991). Psychotherapy without fee, in Money and Mind, edited by Klebanow S, Lowenkopf EL. New York, Plenum, pp 207-221.
  • Geistwhite, R. (2000). Inadequacy and Indebtedness: No-Fee Psychotherapy in County Training Programs. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 9, 142-148. Retrieved from http://vuir.vu.edu.au/19368/30/00jpr142.pdf
  • Gedo, J. (1963). A note on non-payment of psychiatric fees. Int J Psychoanal, 44, 368-371.
  • Griswold, B. (2015). Navigating the Insurance Maze: The Therapist's Complete Guide to Working With Insurance. Retrieved from http://navigatingtheinsurancemaze.com
  • Groman M. (2009) Lowering Fees in Hard Times: The Meaning Behind the Money, Retrieved from http://www.psychotherapy.net/article/psychotherapy-fees
  • Gutheil, T, Gabbard G. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: theoretical and risk-management dimensions. Am J Psychiatry; 150, 188-192.
  • Herrell, J. M. (1993). The therapeutic value of fees: what do practitioners believe? Journal of Mental Health Administration, 20, 270-277.
  • Herron, W. G. (1995). Visible and invisible psychotherapy fees. Psychotherapy in Private Practice. 14(2), 7-17.
  • Herron W.G., Rouslin Welt S. (1992). Money Matters: The Fee in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis. New York, Guilford.
  • Herron, W.G., and Sitkowski, S. (1986). Effects of fees on psychotherapy: what is the evidence? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 347-351.
  • Hill, M. & Kaschak, E. (Eds.). (1999). For love or money: Fee in feminist therapy. New York, NY: Haworth Press Inc.
  • Inman, D. J. & Bascue, L. O. (1984) Fee policies of psychologists in private practice. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 2, 3-12.
  • James, S., Freeman, K. R., Mayo, D., Riggs, M. L., Morgan, J. P., Schaepper, M. A., & Montgomery, S. B. (2015). Does insurance matter? Implementing dialectical behavior therapy with two groups of youth engaged in deliberate self-harm. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(4), 449-461. doi:10.1007/s10488-014-0588-7
  • Jensen, S. A., & Lowry, L. S. (2012). Payment schedules do not affect attendance/completion of group behavioral parent training. Psychological Services, 9, 101–109. doi:10.1037/a0027101.
  • Lin, M. (2013). Incentivizing Healthy Behaviors with Financial Rewards. TuftScope, 13(1), 28-29. Retrieved from http://tuftscope_issues.s3.amazonaws.com/pdfs/32/TuftScope%20Fall%202013.pdf#page=28
  • Lorand, S. and Console, W. A. (1958). : Therapeutic results in psycho-analytic treatment without fee: observation on therapeutic results. Int J Psychoanal, 39, 59-64.
  • Manos, N, (1982). Free psychotherapy: the therapist's and the patient's view. Psychother Psychosom; 37, 137-143.
  • Marteau, T. M., Ashcroft, R. E., & Oliver, A. (2009). Using financial incentives to achieve healthy behaviour. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 338. doi:10.1136/bmj.b1415.
  • Mellan, O. (1994) Money Harmony: Resolving Money Conflicts In your Life and Relationships, Walker and Co.: New York.
  • Mellan, O. (1995) Overcoming Overspending: A Winning Plan for Spenders and their Partners, Walker and Co.: New York
  • Motherwell, L. (2010). The vicissitudes of power and its relationship to money. In S. S. Fehr (Ed.), 101 interventions in group therapy (pp. 53–57). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
  • Myers, K. (2011). Show me the money: The problem of the therapist’s desire, subjectivity and relationship to the fee. In B. Berger & S. Newman (Eds.), Money talks: In therapy, society, and life (pp. 143–165). New York: Routledge.
  • Nash, J.L. and Cavenar, J. O. (1976). Free psychotherapy: an inquiry into resistance. Am J Psychiatry, 133, 1066-1069.
  • Needleman, J. (1994) Money and the Meaning of Life, New York Doubleday Books, 1994
  • Pasternack, S. A. and Treiger, P. (1976). The psychotherapy fee: an issue in residency training. Diseases of the Nervous System, 38, 913-916.
  • Pepper, R. (2004). Raising fees in group therapy: Some ethical and clinical implications. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 34, 141–152. doi:10.1023/B:JOCP.0000022313.41195.97.
  • Pope, K.S., Geller, J. D., and Wilkinson, L. (1975) Fee Assessment and Outpatient Psychotherapy, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 835-841.
  • Power, L. C. & Pilgrim, D. (1990) The fee in psychotherapy: Practitioners' accounts. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 3, 157-170.
  • Psychotherapy Finance 2000 Survey: http://www.psyfin.com/Survey2000/PsyFin2000.pdf
  • Soderlund, J. A century of fees. New Therapy, Retrieved from http://www.newtherapist.com/18fees.html.
  • Stanley, I. H., Chu, C., Brown, T. A., Sawyer, K. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2016). Improved Clinical Functioning for Patients Receiving Fee Discounts That Reward Treatment Engagement. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(1), 15-21. doi:10.1002/jclp.22236.
  • Trautt GM, Bloom L. J. (1982). Therapeugenic factors in psychotherapy: the effects of fee and title on credibility and attraction. J Clin Psychol, 38:274-279.
  • Treloar, H. R. (2010). Financial and ethical considerations for professionals in psychology. Ethics and Behavior, 20, 454–465. doi:10.1080/10508422.2010.521447.
  • Wood, W. D. (1982). Do fees help heal? J Clin Psychol; 38, 669-673.
  • Wortman, R. J. (1984) The relationship of psycho-analytically oriented psychologists' fee policies to personality, training and experience. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 2, 25-38.
  • Yoken, C. and Berman J. S. (1984). Does paying a fee for psychotherapy alter the effectiveness of treatment? J Consult Clin Psychol, 52, 254-260.
  • Zur, O. (2009). Therapy in times of financial crisis and global despair: Taking care of our clients and ourselves. The Central Valley Therapist, January-March, 2-6.
  • Zur, O. (2017). The Complete Fee-for-Service Private Practice Handbook (7th Ed.) Sonoma, CA: Zur Institute.

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