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Fees, Insurance and Coding In Psychotherapy & Counseling


This resource page is part of an Online Course
Fees In Therapy: Clinical, Ethical & Management Considerations

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Fees in Therapy

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Medical & Medicare Billing

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Insurance Reimbursement

Insurance Panels

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ObamaCare - Affordable Health Care

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Resources on Insurance Fraud

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Meaning of Money

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To Charge or Not to Charge: The Dilemma of Missed Sessions

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Codes of Ethics on Fees

CPT Codes in Billing

ICD Codes (International Classification of Diseases)

  • ICD implementation: Aim for the Moving Target
    "First it was Oct. 1, 2013. Then Oct. 1, 2014. Now it's Oct. 1, 2015. Though the deadline for implementing the ICD-10-CM diagnostic coding system in the United States seems to be a moving target, it's never too soon to prepare for the switch. The April 1 Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, which postponed a drastic 24 percent Medicare rate cut, also included a single sentence that delayed implementation of the ICD-10-CM code to Oct. 1, 2015."
    From: APA's Monitor in Psychology, 6/2014
  • New law moves ICD-10-CM implementation to 2015
  • WHO

Additional Resources

  • Bishop, D. R. and Eppolito, J. M. (1992). The clinical management of client dynamics and fees for psychotherapy: Implications for research and practice. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 29(4), 545-553.
  • Blackmon W. D. (1993). Are psychoanalytic billing practices ethical? American Journal of Psychotherapy. 47(4), 613-620.
  • Corbett, A. (2000). Psychotherapy for those who do not pay -understanding money in the therapeutic relationship.
  • Cummings, N. A. (1995). Unconscious fiscal convenience. Psychotherapy in Private Practice. 14(2), 23-28.
  • Erle, J. B.(1993). On the setting of analytic fees. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 61, 106-10
  • Fay, A. (1995). Ethical implications of charging for missed sessions. Psychological Reports. 77, 1251-1259.
  • Fenichel, O. (1954). The drive to amass wealth, in The Collected Papers of Otto Fenichel: Second Series. New York, Norton, pp 89-108.
  • Friedman, R. (1991). Psychotherapy without fee, in Money and Mind, edited by Klebanow S, Lowenkopf EL. New York, Plenum, pp 207-221.
  • Geistwhite, R. (2000). Inadequacy and Indebtedness: No-Fee Psychotherapy in County Training Programs. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 9, 142-148. Retrieved from
  • Gedo, J. (1963). A note on non-payment of psychiatric fees. Int J Psychoanal, 44, 368-371.
  • Griswold, B. (2015). Navigating the Insurance Maze: The Therapist's Complete Guide to Working With Insurance
  • Groman M. Lowering Fees in Hard Times: The Meaning Behind the Money
  • Gutheil, T, Gabbard G. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: theoretical and risk-management dimensions. Am J Psychiatry; 150, 188-192.
  • Herrell, J. M. (1993). The therapeutic value of fees: what do practitioners believe? Journal of Mental Health Administration, 20, 270-277.
  • Herron, W. G. (1995). Visible and invisible psychotherapy fees. Psychotherapy in Private Practice. 14(2), 7-17.
  • Herron W.G., Rouslin Welt S. (1992). Money Matters: The Fee in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis. New York, Guilford.
  • Herron, W.G., and Sitkowski, S. (1986). Effects of fees on psychotherapy: what is the evidence? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 347-351.
  • Hill, Marcia. (1999). Fee in Feminist Therapy, Haworth Press 1999. Originally published in For Love or Money: The Fee in Feminist Therapy. Women & Therapy, 22, Number 3. (Table of Contents and Abstracts are available at:
    • Table of Contents includes:
    • Psychotherapists' Ambivalence About Fees: Male-Female Differences
    • What Are We Worth? Fee Decisions of Psychologists in Private Practice
    • Women, Mental Health, and Managed Care: A Disparate System
    • The Function of the Frame and the Role of Fee in the Therapeutic Situation
    • Payment for Missed Sessions: Policy, Countertransference and Other Challenges
    • Client and Her Therapist
    • Barter: Ethical Considerations in Psychotherapy
    • The Price of Talk in Jail: Letters Across the Walls
    • Private Practice with a Social Conscience

  • Inman, D. J. & Bascue, L. O. (1984) Fee policies of psychologists in private practice. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 2, 3-12.
  • Lorand, S. and Console, W. A. (1958). : Therapeutic results in psycho-analytic treatment without fee: observation on therapeutic results. Int J Psychoanal, 39, 59-64.
  • Manos, N, (1982). Free psychotherapy: the therapist's and the patient's view. Psychother Psychosom; 37, 137-143.
  • Mellan, O. (1994) Money Harmony: Resolving Money Conflicts In your Life and Relationships, Walker and Co.: New York.
  • Mellan, O. (1995) Overcoming Overspending: A Winning Plan for Spenders and their Partners, Walker and Co.: New York
  • Meyers, B. (1976). Attitudes of psychiatric residents toward payment of psychotherapy fees. Am J Psychiatry, 133, 1460-1462.
  • Nash, J.L. and Cavenar, J. O. (1976). Free psychotherapy: an inquiry into resistance. Am J Psychiatry, 133, 1066-1069.
  • Needleman, J. (1994) Money and the Meaning of Life, New York Doubleday Books, 1994
  • Pasternack, S. A. (1977). The psychotherapy fee: an issue in residency training. Diseases of the Nervous System, 38, 913-916.
  • Pasternack, S. A. and Treiger, P. (1976). Psychotherapy fees and residency training. Am J Psychiatry, 133, 1064-1066.
  • Pope, K.S., Geller, J. D., and Wilkinson, L. (1975) Fee Assessment and Outpatient Psychotherapy, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 835-841.
  • Power, L. C. & Pilgrim, D. (1990) The fee in psychotherapy: Practitioners' accounts. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 3, 157-170.
  • Psychotherapy Finance 2000 Survey:
  • Soderlund, J. A century of fees. New Therapy, Retrieved July 1, 2005 from
  • Trautt GM, Bloom L. J. (1982). Therapeugenic factors in psychotherapy: the effects of fee and title on credibility and attraction. J Clin Psychol, 38:274-279.
  • Wood, W. D. (1982). Do fees help heal? J Clin Psychol; 38, 669-673.
  • Wortman, R. J. (1984) The relationship of psycho-analytically oriented psychologists' fee policies to personality, training and experience. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 2, 25-38.
  • Yoken, C. and Berman J. S. (1984). Does paying a fee for psychotherapy alter the effectiveness of treatment? J Consult Clin Psychol, 52, 254-260.
  • Zur, O. (2017). The Complete Fee-for-Service Private Practice Handbook (7th Ed.) Sonoma, CA: Zur Institute.

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