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Rural Psychology


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Rural Psychology: Essentials of An Informed & Ethical Practice

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Dual and Multiple Relationships in Rural Areas

Summary Article

Therapeutic Boundaries and Dual Relationships in Rural Practice

Online Resources

Additional References on Rural Psychology

  • Adams, S. J., Xu, S., Dong, F., Fortney, J., & Rost, K. (2006). Differential effectiveness of depression disease management for rural and urban primary care patients. Journal of Rural Health, 22(4), 343-350.
  • Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A., Zelezny, L., Garcia, B., Edmondson, C., Alejo-Garcia, C., & Vega, W. A. (2002). Trans- lating research into action: Reducing disparities in mental health care for Mexican Americans. Psychiatric Services, 53(12), 1563-1568.
  • Aguilera-Guzmán, R. M., De Snyder, V. N. S., Romero, M., & Medina-Mora, M. E. (2006). Paternal absence and international migration: Stressors and compensators associated with the mental health of Mexican teenagers of rural origin. Family Therapy, 33(3), 125-137.
  • Anderson, J. E., & Larke, S. C. (2009). Navigating the mental health and addictions maze: A community- based pilot project of a new role in primary mental health care. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 6(1), 15-19.
  • Anderson, R. L., & Gittler, J. (2005). Unmet need for community-based mental health and substance use treatment among rural adolescents. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(1), 35-49.
  • Baker, L., & Oswalt, K. (2008). Screening for postpartum depression in a rural community. Community Mental Health Journal, 44(3), 171-180.
  • Barbopoulos, A. & Clark, J. M (2003). Practicing psychology in rural settings: Issues and guidelines. Canadian Psychology, 44/4, 410-424.
  • Barnett, J. E., (2007). Unavoidable Incidental Contacts and Multiple Relationships in Rural Practice. In Zur, O. (Ed.) pp 97-107 Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Barnett, J. E., & Yutrzenka, B. A. (1994). Non-sexual dual relationships in professional practice, with special applications to rural and military communities. The Independent Practitioner, 14 (5), 243-248.
  • Beals, J., Manson, S. M., Whitesell, N. R., Spicer, P., Novins, D. K., & Mitchell, C. M. (2005). Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and attendant help-seeking in 2 American Indian reservation populations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(1), 99-108.
  • Beals, J., Novins, D. K., Whitesell, N. R., Spicer, P., Mitchell, C. M., & Manson, S. M. (2005). Prevalence of mental disorders and utilization of mental health services in two American Indian reservation populations: Mental health disparities in a national context. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(9), 1723- 1732. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.9.1723.
  • Beeson, P.G. (2000). Some notes and data on rural suicide. Rural Mental Health, 25, 13–15.
  • Biddle, V. S., Sekula, L. K., Zoucha, R., & Puskar, K. R. (2010). Identification of suicide risk among rural youth: Implications for the use of HEADSS. Journal of Pediatric Health Care: Official Publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners, 24(3), 152-167.
  • Borders, T. F., & Booth, B. M. (2007). Research on rural residence and access to drug abuse services: Where are we and where do we go? The Journal of Rural Health: Official Journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association, 23 Suppl, 79-83.
  • Boyd, C. P., Hayes, L., Sewell, J., Caldwell, K., Kemp, E., Harvie, L., Nurse, S. (2008). Mental health problems in rural contexts: A broader perspective. Australian Psychologist, 43(1), 2-6.
  • Brannen, C., Johnson Emberly, D., & McGrath, P. (2009). Stress in rural Canada: A structured review of context, stress levels, and sources of stress. Health and Place, 15(1), 219-227.
  • Briddell, L. O. (2010). Rurality and crime: Identifying and explaining rural/urban differences. ProQuest Information & Learning). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 71(3) Retrieved from direct=true&AuthType=ip,url,uid,cookie&db=psyh&AN=2010-99170-331&site=ehost-live.
  • Brownlee, K. (2010). Managing ethical considerations around dual relationships in small rural and remote Canadian communities. International Social Work, March 2010 vol. 53 no. 2, 247-260.
  • Brownlee, K. (1996). The ethics of non-sexual dual relationships: A dilemma for the rural mental health professional. Community Mental Health Journal, 32(5), 497-503.
  • Brownlee, K. & Taylor, S. (1995). The Canadian Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics and non-sexual dual relationships. The Social Worker, 63, 133-136.
  • Campbell, C. D. & Gordon, M. C. (2003). Acknowledging the inevitable: Understanding multiple relationships in rural practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(4): 430-434.
  • Carlson, K. T., & Slovak, K. L. (2006). Gender and violence exposure in a study of rural youth. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 1(4), 67-89.
  • Catalano, S. (1997). The challenges of clinical practice in small or rural communities: Case studies in managing dual relationships in and outside of therapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 27(1), 23-35.
  • Cellucci, T., & Vik, P. (2001). Training for substance abuse treatment among psychologists in a rural state. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(3), 248-252.
  • Choo, E. K., Spiro, D. M., Lowe, R. A., Newgard, C. D., Hall, M. K., & McConnell, K. J. (2010). Rural-urban disparities in child abuse management resources in the emergency department. The Journal of Rural Health, 26(4), 361-365.
  • Costello, E. J., Copeland, W., Cowell, A., & Keeler, G. (2007). Service costs of caring for adolescents with mental illness in a rural community, 1993-2000. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(1), 36-42.
  • Costello, E. J., Farmer, E. M. Z., Angold, A., Burns, B. J., & Erkanli, A. (1997). Psychiatric disorders among American Indian and white youth in Appalachia: The Great Smoky Mountains study. American Journal of Public Health, 87(5), 827-832.
  • Coward, R. T., Bull, C. N., Kukulka, G., & Galliher, J. M. (1994). In Galliher J. M. (Ed.), Health services for rural elders. New York, NY US: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Cully, J. A., Jameson, J. P., Phillips, L. L., Kunik, M. E., & Fortney, J. C. (2010). Use of psychotherapy by rural and urban veterans. The Journal of Rural Health, 26(3), 225-233.
  • De Jesus Diaz-Perez, M., Farley, T., & Cabanis, C. M. (2004). A program to improve access to health care among Mexican immigrants in rural Colorado. Journal of Rural Health, 20(3), 258-264.
  • DeLeon, P. H., Wakefield, M., Schultz, A. J., Williams, J., & VandenBos, G. R. (1989). Rural america: Unique opportunities for health care delivery and health services research. American Psychologist, 44(10), 1298-1306.
  • DeLeon, P. H., Wakefield, M., & Hagglund K. (2003). The behavioral health care needs of rural communities. In B. H. Stamm (Ed.), Rural Behavioral Health Care: An Interdisciplinary Guide. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Dhingra, S. S., Strine, T. W., Holt, J. B., Berry, J. T., & Mokdad, A. H. (2009). Rural-urban variations in psycho- logical distress: Findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2007. International Journal of Public Health, 54 Suppl 1, 16-22.
  • Ellis, A. R., Konrad, T. R., Thomas, K. C., & Morrissey, J. P. (2009). County-level estimates of mental health professional supply in the United States. Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.), 60(10), 1315-1322.
  • Endacott, R., Wood, A., Judd, F., Hulbert, C., Thomas, B., Grigg, M.t (2006). Impact and management of dual relationships in metropolitan, regional and rural mental health practice. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(11-12), 987-994.
  • First, R. J., Rife, J. C., & Toomey, B. G. (1994). Homelessness in rural areas: Causes, patterns, and trends. Social Work, 39(1), 97-108.
  • Fortney, J. C., Booth, B. M., Kirchner, J. E., & Han, X. (2003). Rural-urban differences in health care benefits of a community-based sample of at-risk drinkers. Journal of Rural Health, 19(3), 292-298.
  • Fortney, J. C., Harman, J. S., Xu, S., & Dong, F. (2010). The association between rural residence and the use, type, and quality of depression care. The Journal of Rural Health: Official Journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association, 26(3), 205-213.
  • Freese, T. E., Obert, J., Dickow, A., Cohen, J., & Lord, R. H. (2000). Methamphetamine abuse: Issues for special populations. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 32(2), 177-182.
  • Friedman, L. J. (1997). Rural lesbian mothers and their families. In R. J. Mancoske (Ed.), Rural gays and lesbi- ans: Building on the strengths of communities. (pp. 73-82). Binghamton, NY US: Harrington Park Press/ The Haworth Press.
  • Fronek, P., Kendall, M., Ungerer, G., Malt, J., Eugarde, E., Geraghty, T. (2009). Too hot to handle: reflections on professional boundaries in practice. Reflective Practice, 10(2), 161-171.
  • Gordon, A. J., Ettaro, L., Rodriguez, K. L., Mocik, J., & Clark, D. B. (2011). Provider, patient, and family per- spectives of adolescent alcohol use and treatment in rural settings. The Journal of Rural Health: Official Journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association, 27(1), 81-90.
  • Gorman, D., Buikstra, E., Hegney, D., Pearce, S., Rogers-Clark, C., Weir, J., & McCullagh, B. (2007). Rural men and mental health: Their experiences and how they managed: Feature article. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 16(5), 298-306.
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  • Halverson, G., & Brownlee, K. (2010). Managing ethical considerations around dual relationships in small rural and remote Canadian communities. International Social Work, 53(2), 247-260.
  • Hanrahan, N. P., & Sullivan-Marx, E. M. (2005). Practice patterns and potential solutions to the shortage of providers of older adult mental health services. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice, 6(3), 236-245.
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  • Hartley, D., Ziller, E. C., Loux, S. L., Gale, J. A., Lambert, D., & Yousefian, A. E. (2007). Use of critical access hospital emergency rooms by patients with mental health symptoms. The Journal of Rural Health: Official Journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association, 23(2), 108-115.
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