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Self Disclosure By Therapists: Ethical & Clinical Considerations

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This resource page is part of an Online Course
Self Disclosure By Therapists: Ethical & Clinical Considerations

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Additional Resources

  • Angus, L. and Constantino, M. J. (2017), Client accounts of corrective experiences in psychotherapy: Implications for clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73, 192–195. doi:10.1002/jclp.22432
  • Audet, C. T. (2011). Client perspectives of therapist self-disclosure: Violating boundaries or removing barriers?. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 24(2), 85-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070.2011.589602
  • Barrett, M. S., & Berman, J. S. (2001). Is psychotherapy more effective when therapists disclose information about themselves? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 597–603.
  • Basescu, S. (1990). Show and tell: Reflections on the analyst’s self-disclosure. In G. Stricker & M. Fisher (Eds.), Self-disclosure in the therapeutic relationship (47-59). New York: Plenum.
  • Berg, H., Antonsen, P., & Binder, P. E. (2016). Sediments and vistas in the relational matrix of the unfolding "I": A qualitative study of therapists’ experiences with self-disclosure in psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 26(3), 248-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0040051
  • Bloomgarden, A. & Mennuti, R. X. (Eds.). (2009). Psychotherapist revealed: Therapists speak Aabout self-disclosure in psychotherapy. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Brodley, B.T. (1995). Considerations when responding to questions and requests in client- centered therapy. (Unpublished manuscript). Illinois School of Professional Psychology, Chicago, IL.
  • Coché, E., & Polikoff, B. (1979). Self-disclosure and outcome in short-term group psychotherapy. Group, 3(1), 35-47. doi:10.1007/BF01547028
  • Derlaga, V. J. & Berg, J. H. (Eds.) (1987). Self-disclosure: Theory, research and therapy. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • Dixon, L. & Adler, D. (2001). Reexamination of therapist self-disclosure: Psychopathology committee of the group for the advancement of psychiatry. Psychiatric Services 52(11), 1489-1493. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261401319_Reexamination_of_Therapist_Self-Disclosure
  • Edelstein, L.N., & Waehler, C.A. (2011). What do I say? The therapist’s guide to answering client questions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Farber, B. A. (2006). Self-disclosure in psychotherapy. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  • Feldman, T. (2002). Technical considerations when handling questions in the initial phases of psychotherapy. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 32, 213-227.
  • Firth, S. (2015). When doctors get sick: How much to share about mental illness? Medpage Today. Retrieved from http://www.medpagetoday.com/Psychiatry/GeneralPsychiatry/53399?xid=nl_mpt_DHE_2015-09-05&eun=g59186d0r
  • Gibson, M. F. (2012). Opening up: Therapist self-disclosure in theory, research, and practice. Clinical Social Work Journal, 40(3), 287–296. DOI: 10.1007/s10615-012-0391-4
  • Glickauf-Hughes, C., & Chance, S.E. (1995). Answering client questions. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 32, 375-380.
  • Goode, E. R. I. C. A. (2002). Therapists redraw line on self-disclosure. The New York Times, F5. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/01/01/health/therapists-redraw-line-on-self-disclosure.html
  • Grandy, N. M. (n.d.) Responding to client questions: Perceived impact of therapist responses. Retrieved from http://engagedscholarship.csuohio.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=greatlakes
  • Henretty, J. R., & Levitt, H. M. (2010). The role of therapist self-disclosure in psychotherapy: A qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 63–77.
  • Hill, C. E., & Knox, S. (2002). Self-disclosure. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 255–265). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Holmqvist, Rolf. The use of self-disclosure among Swedish psychotherapists. European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling 17(1), 80-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13642537.2014.996171
  • Jourard, S. M. (1972). The Transparent Self. The Netherlands: Van Nostrand Reinhold Inc.
  • Kang, S. H., Krum, D. M., Khooshabeh, P., Phan, T., Chang, C. Y., Amir, O., & Lin, R. (2017). Social influence of humor in virtual human counselor's self‐disclosure. Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds. https://doi.org/10.1002/cav.1763
  • Kim, J., & Song, H. (2016). Celebrity's self-disclosure on Twitter and parasocial relationships: A mediating role of social presence. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 570-577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.083
  • Knox, S., & Hill, C. E. (2003). Therapist self-disclosure: Research-based suggestions for practitioners. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 529–539.
  • Lin, W. Y., Zhang, X., Song, H., & Omori, K. (2016). Health information seeking in the Web 2.0 age: Trust in social media, uncertainty reduction, and self-disclosure. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 289-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.11.055
  • Patterson, C. H. (1985). Therapist self-disclosure. In The therapeutic relationship: Foundations for an eclectic psychotherapy (pp. 80-84). Monterey, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
  • Pinto-Coelho, K. G., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan Jr, D. M. (2016). Therapist self-disclosure in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A mixed methods investigation. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 29(1), 29-52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515070.2015.1072496
  • Reamer, F. G. (2011). The boundaries of self-disclosure in clinical social work. Social Work Today. Retrieved from http://www.socialworktoday.com/news/eoe_011111.shtml
  • Simonds, L. M., & Spokes, N. (2017). Therapist self-disclosure and the therapeutic alliance in the treatment of eating problems. Eating Disorders, 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2016.1269557
  • Stricker, G. & Fisher, M. (1990). Self-disclosure in the therapeutic relationship. New York, NY: Springer.
  • Using spiritual self-disclosure in psychotherapy. (n.d.). In The Free Library. Retrieved from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Using+spiritual+self-disclosure+in+psychotherapy.-a0192863907
  • Volkova, S., & Bachrach, Y. (2015). On predicting sociodemographic traits and emotions from communications in social networks and their implications to online self-disclosure. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(12), 726-736. doi:10.1089/cyber.2014.0609
  • Waehler C. A. & Grandy N. M. (2016) Beauty from the beast: Avoiding errors in responding to client questions. Psychotherapy, 53(3), 278-83
  • Way, W., & Vosloo, J. (2016). Practical considerations for self-disclosure in applied sport psychology. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 7(1), 23-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2015.1123207
  • Ziv-Beiman, S., Keinan, G., Livneh, E., Malone, P. S., & Shahar, G. (2016). Immediate therapist self-disclosure bolsters the effect of brief integrative psychotherapy on psychiatric symptoms and the perceptions of therapists: A randomized clinical trial. Psychotherapy Research, 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2016.1138334
  • Ziv-Beiman, S., & Shahar, G. (2016). Therapeutic self-disclosure in integrative psychotherapy: When is this a clinical error? Psychotherapy, 53(3), 273-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pst0000077
  • Zur, O. (2006). Therapeutic boundaries and dual relationships in rural practice: Ethical, clinical and standard of care considerations. Journal of Rural Community Psychology, 9(1), 1-40. Retrieved from http://www.zurinstitute.com/online/rural14.html
  • Zur, O. (2008). The Google factor: Therapists' unwitting self-disclosure on the net. New Therapist 57, 16-22. Retrieved from http://www.zurinstitute.com/google_factor1.pdf
  • Zur, O. (2008). The Google factor: Therapists' self-disclosure in the age of the internet: Discover what your clients can find out about you with a click of the mouse. The Independent Practitioner, 28(2), 82-85. Retrieved from http://www.zurinstitute.com/google_factor.pdf
  • Zur, O. (2009). Ethical and standard of care considerations regarding therapists' self-disclosure. A. Bloomgarden and R. B. Mennuti, (Eds). Psychotherapist Revealed: Therapists Speak about Self-Disclosure (pp 31-55). New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
  • Zur, O. (2009). Psychotherapist self-disclosure and transparency in the internet age. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 22-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014745
  • Zur, O. (2010). Self-disclosure. In I. B. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.), Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (4th ed.) (pp. 1532-1534). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Zur, O. (2010). How should psychologists respond to online 'friending' requests? National Psychologist, 14.

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