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Informed Consent

An Online Course:
Informed Consent in Psychotherapy and Counseling

The following resources and references are not mandatory reading for this online course. They provide additional information that you may wish to review. Any forms that are listed are available to the public via the Internet and therefore may change without prior notice.


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References Specific to the Legal System

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Additional References

  • Barden, R.C. (2001) Informed consent in psychotherapy: A multidisciplinary perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 29(2), 160-166.
  • Barden, R. C. (2014). Reforming mental health care: How ending “recovered memory” treatments brought informed consent to psychotherapy. Psychiatric Times, 31(6), 28. Retrieved from 2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA375699180&sid=googleScholar&linkaccess=fulltext&authCount=1&isAnonymousEntry=true
  • Barnett, J. E. (2016). An introduction to boundaries and multiple relationships for psychotherapists. In O. Zur (Ed.). Multiple relationships in psychotherapy and counseling: Unavoidable, common, and mandatory dual relations in therapy, (pp. 17-29). New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Beahrs, J.O., & Gutheil, T.G. (2001) Informed consent in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(1), 4-10.
  • Beauchamp, T. L., & Childress, J. F. (1994). Principles of biomedical ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Beeman, D.G., & Scott, N.A. (1991). Therapists’ attitudes toward psychotherapy informed consent with adolescents. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22(3), 230-234.
  • Berg, J. W., Lidz, C. W., Appelbaum, P. S., & Parker, L. S. (2001). Informed consent: Legal theory and clinical practice (2nd Ed.). London: Oxford University Press.
  • Blease, C. R. (2015). Informed consent, the placebo effect and psychodynamic psychotherapy. In T. Schramme (Ed.), New Perspectives on Paternalism and Health Care (pp. 163-181). New York, NY: Springer International Publishing.
  • Blease, C. R. (2015). Talking more about talking cures: Cognitive behavioural therapy and informed consent. Journal of Medical Ethics, 41(9), 750-755.
  • Blease, C. R., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Kelley, J. M. (2016). Evidence-based practice and psychological treatments: The imperatives of informed consent. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. Retrieved from
  • Borkosky, B & Smith, D.M. (2015) The risks and benefits of disclosing psychotherapy records to the legal system: What psychologists and patients need to know for informed consent. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 42, 19-30.
  • Cabaniss, D. L., Cherry, S., Douglas, C. J., & Schwartz, A. (2017). Informed consent and collaborative goal setting. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Clinical Manual (2nd Ed.), 71-79. DOI: 10.1002/9781119142010.ch7
  • Cannell, J., Hudson, J.I., & Pope, H.G. (2001) Standards for informed consent in recovered memory therapy. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 29, 138-147. Retrieved from
  • Cunningham, M.D. (2006). Informed consent in capital sentencing evaluations: Targets and content. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(5), 452-459.
  • Donnelly, M. (2002). Consent. Crosses Green, Ireland: Cork University Press.
  • Druml C. (2004). Informed consent of incapable (ICU) patients in Europe: Existing laws and the EU Directive. Curr Opin Crit Care, 10(6):570-573. Retrieved from
  • Ferrer, R. A., Stanley, J. T., Graff, K., Klein, W. M., Goodman, N., Nelson, W. L., & Salazar, S. (2016). The effect of emotion on visual attention to information and decision making in the context of informed consent process for clinical trials. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 29(2-3), 245-253. DOI:10.1002/bdm.1871
  • Fisher, J. A. (2006). Procedural misconceptions and informed consent: Insights from empirical research on the clinical trials industry. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 16(3), 251-268. Retrieved from
  • Geraghty, K. J., & Blease, C. (2016). Cognitive behavioural therapy in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: A narrative review on efficacy and informed consent. Journal of Health Psychology. Retrieved from
  • Gustafson, K.E., McNamara, J. R., & Jensen, J.A. (1994). Parents’ informed consent decisions regarding psychotherapy for their children: Consideration of therapeutic risks and benefits. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25(1), 16-22.
  • Handelsman, M.M., & Martin, W.L. (1992). Effects of readability on the impact and recall of written informed consent material. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23(6), 500-503.
  • Hanson, L. R. (2003). Informed consent and the scope of a physician’s duty of disclosure. Specialty Law Digest: Health Care Law, 285, 9–34. Retrieved from
  • Hawkins, I.A., & Bullock, S.L. (1995). Informed consent and religious values: A neglected area of diversity. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 32(2), 293-300.
  • Heisig, S. R., Shedden-Mora, M. C., Hidalgo, P., & Nestoriuc, Y. (2015). Framing and personalizing informed consent to prevent negative expectations: An experimental pilot study. Health Psychology, 34(10)), 1033-1037. Retrieved from
  • Hodgson, J., Mendenhall, T., & Lamson, A. (2013). Patient and provider relationships: Consent, confidentiality, and managing mistakes in integrated primary care settings. Families, Systems, & Health, 31(1), 28-40.
  • Holmes-Rovner, M., & Wills, C. E. (2002). Improving informed consent: Insights from behavioral decision research. Medical Care, 40, v30-v38. Retrieved from
  • Hudgins, C., Rose, S., Fifield, P. Y., & Arnault, S. (2013). Navigating the legal and ethical foundations of informed consent and confidentiality in integrated primary care. Families, Systems, & Health, 31(1), 9-19.
  • Ilgen, D.R., & Bell, B.S. (2001). Informed consent and dual purpose research. American Psychologist, 56(12), 1177.
  • Jensen, J.A., McNamara, J.R., & Gustafson, K.E. (1991). Parents’ and clinicians’ attitudes toward the risks and benefits of child psychotherapy: A study of informed-consent content. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22(2), 161-170.
  • Jonsen, A. R., Winslade, W. J., & Siegler, M. (2002). Clinical ethics: A practical approach to ethical decisions in clinical medicine (5th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Karpman, A. (2000). Informed consent: Does the first amendment protect a patient’s right to choose alternative treatment? New York Law School Journal of Human Rights 16(3), 933–957. Retrieved from
  • Luce, J. M. (2003). Is the concept of informed consent applicable to clinical research involving critically ill patients? Critical Care Medicine 31(3), S153–S160. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000054901.80339.01
  • Marr, S. (2002). Protect your practice: Informed consent. Plastic Surgical Nursing, 22(4), 180–197. Retrieved from
  • Mason, J. K., & McCall Smith, R. A. (1999). Law and Medical Ethics. London: Butterworths.
  • McCrady, B.S., & Bux, D.A. Jr. (1999). Ethical issues in informed consent with substance abusers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 186-193.
  • Meadows, M. (2003). Drug research and children. FDA Consumer 37(1), 12–17.
  • O’Neill, P. (1998). Negotiating consent in psychotherapy. New York: New York University Press.
  • Palmer, L., & Harris, G. (2017). School counsellors’ perspectives and practices regarding informed consent. The Morning Watch: Educational and Social Analysis, 44(1-2). Retrieved from
  • Pomerantz, A. M. (2005). Increasingly informed consent: Discussing distinct aspects of psychotherapy at different points in time. Ethics & Behavior, 15(4), 351–360.
  • Pomerantz, A. M. and Handelsman, M. M. (2004). Informed consent revisited: An updated written question format. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(2), 201-205.
  • Radford, R. (2002). Informed consent. Bangor, Maine: Booklocker
  • Roberts, K. J., Revenson, T. A., Urken, M. L., Fleszar, S., Cipollina, R., Rowe, M. E., & Lepore, S. J. (2016). Testing with feedback improves recall of information in informed consent: A proof of concept study. Patient Education and Counseling, 99(8), 1377-1381. DOI:
  • Rozovsky, F. A. (1990). Consent to treatment: A practical guide. Boston: Little Brown.
  • Santelli, J., Haerizadeh, S., McGovern, T. (2017). Inclusion with protection: Obtaining informed consent when conducting research with adolescents. Innocenti Research Briefs, Methods: Conducting Research with Adolescents in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, 3. Retrieved from
  • Solomon, R. C. (2006). Ethical issues in medical malpractice. Emergency medicine clinics of North America, 24(3), 733-747. DOI: 10.1016/j.emc.2006.05.017
  • Somberg, D.R., Stone, G. L., & Claiborn, C. D. (1993). Informed consent: Therapists’ beliefs and practices. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24(2), 153-159.
  • Sullivan, T., Martin, W.L., & Handelsman, M. M. (1993). Practical benefits of an informed-consent procedure: An empirical investigation. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24(2), 160-163.
  • Tamar-Mattis, A., Baratz, A., Baratz Dalke, K., & Karkazis, K. (2014). Emotionally and cognitively informed consent for clinical care for differences of sex development. Psychology & Sexuality, 5(1), 44-55.
  • Tamariz, L., Palacio, A., Robert, M., & Marcus, E. N. (2013). Improving the informed consent process for research subjects with low literacy: A systematic review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28(1), 121-126. doi:10.1007/s11606-012-2133-2
  • Trachsel, M., Grosse Holtforth, M., Biller-Andorno, N., & Appelbaum, P. S. (2015). Informed consent for psychotherapy: Still not routine. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(9), 775-777. DOI:
  • Tucker, J. A. and Vuchinich, R. E. (2000). Creating a research context for reducing risk and obtaining informed consent in human alcohol studies. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(4), 319-327.
  • Wang, C. E. H., & Huch, M. H. (2000). Protecting human research subjects: An international perspective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 13(4), 293-298.
  • Wang, X., Yu, X., Appelbaum, P. S., Tang, H., Yao, G., Si, T., & Ma, Y. (2016). Longitudinal informed consent competency in stable community patients with schizophrenia: A one-week training and one-year follow-up study. Schizophrenia Research, 170(1), 162-167.

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