Trauma & PTSD
Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation
Resources & References
Crisis & Trauma: Identification, Assessment and Treatment for Acute and Prolonged Symptoms
Post-Traumatic Growth: Advanced Clinical Applications
Post-Traumatic Growth: Beyond Survival and Recovery
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Defined, Described, Detailed, Debated
Treating Trauma, PTSD and Traumatic Brain Injury
Understanding And Treating Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma
Veterans: Assessment and Screening for PTSD & Suicidality
Table Of Contents
- For Clients
- For Clinicians
- PTSD and Service Dogs
- TBI References & Research
- Critique of Current Attitudes and Approaches to PTSD
- Treatment for Trauma
- Organizations Supporting Trauma Victims
- Other Resources for Trauma Survivors
- Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: CISD
- Resources Provided by Types of Trauma
- Assessment Tools
PTSD & TBI
Holocaust Survivors and Descendants:
Dogs and PTSD U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
SERVICE DOG TASKS for PSYCHIATRIC DISABILITIES, Tasks to mitigate certain disabling illnesses classified as mental impairments under The Americans with Disabilities Act
How Dogs Can Help Veterans Overcome PTSD, New research finds that “man’s best friend” could be lifesavers for veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Smithsonian Magazine.
Wounded Warriors, Healing Hounds , Video Documentary
Psychiatric Service Dogs and PTSD Legislation proposing a pilot program that would provide service dogs to veterans with PTSD.
Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD Pairing specially trained therapy dogs with PTSD vets.
How Dogs Can Help Veterans Overcome PTSD Paws for Purple Hearts, one of four experimental programs nationwide that pair veterans afflicted by PTSD with Labrador and golden retrievers.
Therapy dogs helping with more than PTSD, TBI Veterans Moving Forward provides service dogs, at no cost, to veterans with physical and mental health challenges, including those suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injuries.
Canine Therapy for Military PTSD The US Army is using canine therapy to help solders recovery from PTSD.
Dogs go the distance: Program provides service to veterans with PTSD Operation Wolfhound
Adams, JH, Graham, DI and Scott G, et al. (1980). Brain damage in fatal non-missile head injury. J Clin Pathol 33: 1132-1145.
Anderson, DW and Kalsbeek, WD. (1980). The national head and spinal cord injury survey: assessment of some uncertainties affecting the findings. Journal of Neurosurgery. November Supplement: S32-34.
Baguley, IJ, Cooper, J and Felmingham, K. (2006). Aggressive behavior following traumatic brain injury: how common is common?. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Jan-Feb 21(1):45-56.
Baratz, R., Tweedie, D., Wang, J., Rubovitch, V., Luo, W., Hoffer, B. J., . . . Pick, C. G. (2015). Transiently lowering tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis ameliorates neuronal cell loss and cognitive impairments induced by minimal traumatic brain injury in mice. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 12, 45.
Bell, KR and Sandell, ME.(1998). Brain Injury rehabilitation. Post acute rehabilitation and community integration. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79: S21-S25.
Bogner, JA, Corrigan, JD and Mysiw, WJ, et al.(2001). A comparison of substance abuse and violence in the prediction of long-term rehabilitation outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. May 82(5):571-7.
Bogner, JA, Corrigan, JD, and Stange, M, et al.(1999). Reliability of the Agitated Behavior Scale. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Feb 14(1):91-6.
Bohnen, NI, Jolles, J and Twijnstra A, et al. (1995). Late neurobehavioral symptoms after mild head injury. Brain Injury 9: 27-33.
Brooke, MM, Patterson, DR and Questad, KA, et al. (1992). The treatment of agitation during initial hospitalization after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Oct 73(10):917-21.
Brown, AW, Malec, JF and McClelland, RL, et al.(2005). Clinical elements that predict outcome after traumatic brain injury: a prospective multicenter recursive partitioning (decision-tree) analysis. J Neurotrauma. Oct 22(10):1040-51.
Buller, HR, Agnelli, G and Hull, RD, et al. (2004). Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest. Sep 126(3 Suppl):401S-428S.
Bushnik, T, Englander, J and Duong T. (2004). Medical and social issues related to posttraumatic seizures in persons with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Jul-Aug 19(4):296-304.
Carney, N., Totten, A. M., O’Reilly, C., Ullman, J. S., Hawryluk, G. W., Bell, M. J., . . . Ghajar, J. (2016). Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Fourth Edition. Neurosurgery, 80, 1, 6-15.
Chambers, J, Cohen, SS and Hemminger, L, et al. (1996). Mild traumatic brain injuries in low-risk trauma patients. J Trauma. Dec 41(6):976-80.
Chamelian, L and Feinstein, A.(2006). The effect of major depression on subjective and objective cognitive deficits in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 18(1):33-8.
Chatham, Showalter PE and Kimmel, DN. (2000).Agitated symptom response to divalproex following acute brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 12(3):395-7.
Cheng, F., Yuan, Q., Yang, J., Wang, W., & Liu, H. (2014 ). The Prognostic Value of Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase in Traumatic Brain Injury: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, 9, 9.
Chesnut, RM, Carney, N and Maynard, H, et al.(1999). Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury. Rockville, Md: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment 2, 1-176.
Chiaretti, A, Antonelli, A and Mastrangelo, A, et al. (2008).Interleukin-6 and nerve growth factor upregulation correlates with improved outcome in children with severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. Mar 25(3):225-34.
Cifu, DX, Kaelin, DL and Wall, BE. (1996). Deep venous thrombosis: incidence on admission to a brain injury rehabilitation program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Nov 77(11):1182-5.
Cockrell, J.(1996). Paediatric brain injury rehabilitation. In: Horn LJ, Zasler ND, editors. Medical rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury. Philadelphia: Hanley and Belfus. Pps. 171-198.
Corrigan, JD.(1989). Development of a scale for assessment of agitation following traumatic brain injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. Mar 11(2):261-77.
Corrigan, JD, Bogner, JA and Mysiw WJ, et al.(2001). Life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Dec 16(6):543-55.
Crossley, S., Reid, J., McLatchie, R., Hayton, J., Clark, C., MacDougall, M., & Andrews, P. J. (2014). A systematic review of therapeutic hypothermia for adult patients following traumatic brain injury. Critical Care, 18, R75.
Davis, DP, Serrano, JA and Vilke, GM, et al.(2006). The predictive value of field versus arrival Glasgow Coma Scale score and TRISS calculations in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. May 60(5):985-90.
Deb, S and Crownshaw, T. (2004). The role of pharmacotherapy in the management of behaviour disorders in traumatic brain injury patients. Brain Inj. Jan 18(1):1-31.
Dikmen, SS, Bombardier, CH and Machamer, JE, et al.(2004). Natural history of depression in traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Sep 85(9):1457-64.
Dixon, CE, Kraus, MF, Ma, X., Yan, HQ, Griffith, RG, Wolfson, BM and Marion DW. (1999). Amantadine improves water maze performance following traumatic brain injury in rats. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 14: 285-294.
Eker, C, Schalen, W, Asgeirsson, B, Grande, P-O and Nordstrom C-H. (2000). Reduced mortality after severe head injury will increase the demands for rehabilitation services. Brain Injury 14(7):605-619
Elovic, E and Zafonte, RD. (2001). Spasticity management in traumatic brain injury. Phys Med Rehabil State Art Rev. 15:327-48.
Evans, RW. (1992). The postconcussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury. Neurologic Clinics 10:815-847.
Feeney, DM and Sutton, RL. (1987). Pharmacotherapy for recovery of function after brain injury. CRC Crit Rev Neurobiol 3: 135-197.
Flint, AC, Manley, GT and Gean, AD, et al. (2008). Post-operative expansion of hemorrhagic contusions after unilateral decompressive hemicraniectomy in severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. Mar 17.
Fortune, N and Wen, X.(1999). The definition, incidence and prevalence of acquired brain injury in Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Catalogue DIS 15.)
Geerts, WH, Pineo, GF and Heit, JA, et al. (2004). Prevention of venous thromboembolism: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest. Sep 126(3 Suppl):338S-400S.
Gordon, WA, Brown, M and Sliwinski, M, et al. (1998). The enigma of “hidden” traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Dec 13(6):39-56.
Greenwald, BD, Burnett, DM and Miller, MA. (2003). Congenital and acquired brain injury. 1. Brain injury: epidemiology and pathophysiology. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Mar 84(3 Suppl 1):S3-S7.
Gronwall, D. (1989). Cumulative and persisting effects of concussion on attention and cognition. In Levin, HS, Eisenberg, HM and Benton, AL(eds): Mild Brain Injury, pp.153-162. Oxford University Press, New York.
Hammill, RW, Woolf, PD and McDonald, JV et al. (1987). Catecholamines predict outcome in traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol 21: 438-443.
Hammond, FM and McDeavitt, JT. (1999). Cognitive and behavior effects of brain injury. In: Rosenthal M, Griffith ER, Kreutzer JS, et al, eds. Rehabilitation of the Adult and Child. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis. Pps.53-73.
Harrison-Felix, C, Whiteneck, G and Devivo, MJ, et al. (2006). Causes of death following 1 year postinjury among individuals with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Jan-Feb 21(1):22-33.
Hiler, M, Czosnyka, M and Hutchinson, P, et al.(2006). Predictive value of initial computerized tomography scan, intracranial pressure, and state of autoregulation in patients with traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. May 104(5):731-7.
Hoofien, D, Gilboa, A, Vakil, E and Donovick, PJ. (2001). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) 10-20 years later: a comprehensive study of psychiatric symptomatology, cognitive abilities and psychosocial functioning. Brain Inj 15(3):189-209
Horn, LJ.(1992). Systems of care for the person with TBI. Phys Med Rehab Clin North Am 3: 475-492.
Hulkower, M., Poliak, D., Rosenbaum, S., Zimmerman, M., & Lipton, M. (2013). A Decade of DTI in Traumatic Brain Injury: 10 Years and 100 Articles Later. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 34, 11, 2064-2074.
Jennett, B and Bond, M.(1975). Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Lancet. Mar 1, 1(7905):480-4. http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/46957
Jennison, Mary Ellen. (1993). “Project Able: Academic Bridges to Learning Effectiveness.” Report.
Jorge, RE, Robinson, RG and Moser, D, et al.(2004). Major depression following traumatic brain injury. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Jan 61(1):42-50.
Jorge, RE and Starkstein, SE.(2005). Pathophysiologic aspects of major depression following traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Nov-Dec 20(6):475-87.
Joseph, AB and Wroblewski, B.(1995). Depression, antidepressants and traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 10: 90-95.
Kalsbeek, WD, McLaurin, RL, Harris, BS and Miller, JD. (1980). The national head and spinal cord injury survey: major findings. Journal of Neurosurgery. November; Supplement:S19-31
Katz, DI.(1992). Neuropathology and neurobehavioural recovery from closed head injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 7: 1-15.
Kay, T, Harrington, DE and Adams, R, et al.(1993). Definition of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 8: 86-87.
Keith, RA, Granger, CV and Hamilton, BB, et al.(1987). The functional independence measure: a new tool for rehabilitation. Adv Clin Rehabil. 1:6-18.
Kerr, M and Kraus, MF (1998) Genetics and the central nervous system: apolipoprotein E and brain injury. AACN Clinical Issues: Advanced Practice in Acute and Critical Care 9(4): 524-530.
Kerr, ME, Kraus, M, Marion, D and Kamboh I (1999). Evaluation of apolipoprotein E genotypes on cerebral blood flow and metabolism following traumatic brain injury. Adv Exp Med Biol 471: 117-24.
Khateb, A, Ammann, J and Annoni, JM, et al.(2005). Cognition-enhancing effects of donepezil in traumatic brain injury. Eur Neurol. 54(1):39-45.
King, JT Jr, Carlier, PM and Marion, DW. (2005). Early Glasgow Outcome Scale scores predict long-term functional outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. Sep 22(9):947-54.
Kraus, JK, Black, MA and Hessol, N, et al.(1984). The incidence of acute brain injury and serious impairment in a defined population. Am J Epidemiol 119: 186-201.
Kraus, MF (1995). Neuropsychiatric sequelae of stroke and traumatic brain injury: The role of psychostimulants. International Journal of Psychiatry and Medicine 25: 39-51
Kraus, MF and Maki, PM (1997). The effect of amantadine hydrochloride on neuropsychiatric sequelae of brain injury: Case studies and review. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 9 (2): 222-230.
Kraus, JF and McArthur, DL. (1998). Incidence and prevalence of, and costs associated with, traumatic brain injury. In Rosenthal, M., Griffith, ER and Kreutzer, JS, eds. Rehabilitation of the adult and child with traumatic brain injury. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis. pps. 3-18.
Kraus, J, Schaffer, K and Ayers, K, et al. (2005). Physical complaints, medical service use, and social and employment changes following mild traumatic brain injury: a 6-month longitudinal study. J Head Trauma Rehabil. May-Jun 20(3):239-56.
Langlois, JA, Rutland-Brown, W and Thomas, KE. (2006). Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Lee, H, Kim, SW and Kim, JM, et al.(2005). Comparing effects of methylphenidate, sertraline and placebo on neuropsychiatric sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury. Hum Psychopharmacol. Mar 20(2):97-104.
Leone, H and Polsonetti, BW.(2005). Amantadine for traumatic brain injury: does it improve cognition and reduce agitation?. J Clin Pharm Ther. Apr 30(2):101-4.
Levin, HS, Eisenberg, HM and Benton, AL(eds). (1991). Frontal Lobe Function and Dysfunction. Oxford University Press, New York, 1991.
Levin, H S and Kraus, MF (1994). The frontal lobes and traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 6: 443-454.
Levin, HS, Mattis, S and Ruff, RM, et al. (1987). Neurobehavioral outcome following minor head injury: a three-center study. J Neurosurg66: 234-243.
Levin, HS, O’Donnell, VM and Grossman, RG. (1979). The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test. A practical scale to assess cognition after head injury. J Nerv Ment Dis. Nov 167(11):675-84.
Levin, H, Williams, D and Eisenberg H, et al. (1992). Serial magnetic resonance imaging and neurobehavioral findings after mild to moderate closed head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55: 255-262.
Lewin, ICF. (1992). The cost of disorders of the brain. Washington, D.C: The National Foundation for the Brain, 1992.
Lu, J, Marmarou, A and Choi S, et al. (2005). Mortality from traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 95:281-5.
Maas, AI, Hukkelhoven, CW and Marshall, LF, et al.(2005). Prediction of outcome in traumatic brain injury with computed tomographic characteristics: a comparison between the computed tomographic classification and combinations of computed tomographic predictors. Neurosurgery. Dec 57(6):1173-82; discussion 1173-82.
Malojcic, B, Mubrin, Z and Coric, B, et al.(2008). Consequences of mild traumatic brain injury on information processing assessed with attention and short-term memory tasks. J Neurotrauma. Jan 25(1):30-7.
Mateer, CA and D’Arcy, RCN.(2000). Current concepts and aproaches to management. In: Raskin SA, Mateer CA, editors. Neuropsychological management of mild traumatic brain injury. New York: Oxford University Press. Pps. 3-22.
Max, W, MacKenzie, EJ and Rice, DP. (1991). Head injuries: cost and consequences. J Head Trauma Rehab. 6:76-91.
McDonald, CM, Jaffe, KM and Fay, GC, et al. (1994). Comparison of indices of traumatic brain injury severity as predictors of neurobehavioral outcome in children. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Mar 75(3):328-37.
Melamed, E, Robinson, D and Halperin, N, et al. (2002). Brain injury-related heterotopic bone formation: treatment strategy and results. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. Sep 81(9):670-4.
Nickels, JL, Schneider, WN and Dombovy, ML, et al.(1994). Clinical use of amantadine in brain injury rehabilitation. Brain Inj. Nov-Dec ;8(8):709-18.
Niesman, I. R., Schilling, J. M., Shapiro, L. A., Kellerhals, S. E., Bonds, J. A., Kleschevnikov, A. M., . . . Head, B. P. (2014). Traumatic brain injury enhances neuroinflammation and lesion volume in caveolin deficient mice. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 11, 39.
NIH. (1998). Rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury. Paper from: NIH Consensus Development Conference.
Noppens, R and Brambrink, AM. (2004). Traumatic brain injury in children–clinical implications. Exp Toxicol Pathol. Oct 56(1-2):113-25.
Olver, JH, Ponsford, JL and Curran, CA.(1996). Outcome following traumatic brain injury: a comparison between 2 and 5 years after injury. Brain Injury 10: 841-848.
Pachet, A, Friesen, S and Winkelaar, D, et al. (2003). Beneficial behavioural effects of lamotrigine in traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. Aug 17(8):715-22.
Palmer, AM, Marion, DW andBotscheller, ML, et al. (1993). Traumatic brain injury induced excitotoxicity assessed in a controlled cortical impact model. J Neurochemistry 61: 2015-24.
Parcell, DL, Ponsford, JL and Rajaratnam, SM, et al. (2006). Self-reported changes to nighttime sleep after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Feb 87(2):278-85.
Ponsford, J, Willmott, C and Rothwell, A, et al. (2000). Factors influencing outcome following mild traumatic brain injury in adults. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. Jul 6(5):568-79.
Povlishok, J. (1992). Traumatically induced axonal injury: pathogenesis and pathobiological implications. Brain Pathology 2:1-12.
Powell, J, Heslin, J and Greenwood, R.(2002). Community based rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury: a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72: 193-202.
Rappaport, M, Hall, KM and Hopkins K, et al.(1982). Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: coma to community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Mar 63(3):118-23.
Roberts, MA, Manshadi, FF and Bushnell, DL, et al. (1995). Neurobehavioral dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury in childhood: a case report with positive findings on positron emission tomography (PET). Brain Injury 9:427-436.
Robertson, RH and Knight, RG.(2008). Evaluation of social problem solving after traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychol Rehabil. Apr 18(2):236-50.
Rosenthal, M, Griffith, ER and Bond, MR, et al.(1990). Rehabilitation of the adult and child with traumatic brain injury. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: FA Davis.
Russell, WR. (1932). Cerebral involvement in head injury. Brain. 55:549-603.
Russell, WR.(1971). The Traumatic Amnesias. London, England: Oxford University Press.
Sandell, ME, Bell, KR and Michaud, LJ.(1998). Brain injury rehabilitation. Traumatic brain injury, prevention, pathophysiology and outcome prediction. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79: S3-S9.
Schierhout, G, Roberts, I.(2003). Anti-epileptic drugs for preventing seizures following acute traumatic brain injury (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1. Oxford: Update Software.
Shores, EA, Marosszeky, JE and Sandanam, J, et al.(1986). Preliminary validation of a clinical scale for measuring the duration of PTA. Med J Aust 144: 569-572.
Silver, JM, McAllister, TW and Yodofsky, SC, eds. (2005). Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury. Arlington, VA:. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. Pps. 27-39.
Smith, DH, Meaney, DF and Shull, WH. (2003). Diffuse axonal injury in head trauma. J Head Trauma Rehabil. Jul-Aug 18(4):307-16.
Solomon, S.(2001). Posttraumatic headache. Med Clin North Am. Jul 85(4):987-96, vii-viii.
Sosin, D, Sniezek, JE and Waxweiller, RJ. (1995). Trends in death associated with traumatic brain injury, 1979 through 1992: success and failures. JAMA 272(22):1778-1780
Stanislav, SW.(1997). Cognitive effects of antipsychotic agents in persons with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. May 11(5):335-41.
Stein, SC, Fabbri, A and Servadei, F, et al.(2008). A critical comparison of clinical decision instruments for computed tomographic scanning in mild closed traumatic brain injury in adolescents and adults. Ann Emerg Med. Mar 11 [Epub ahead of print]
Stevens, M.(1982). Post concussion syndrome. Framingham, Mass: National Head Injury Foundation. Pps. 82-001.
Tate, RL, MacDonald, S and Lulham, JM.(1998). Incidence of hospital treated traumatic brain injury in an Australian community. A N Z J Public Health 22: 419-423.
Tavender, E. J., Bosch, M., Gruen, R. L., Green, S. E., Knott, J., Francis, J. J., . . . O’Connor, D. A. (2014). Understanding practice: the factors that influence management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department-a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Implementation Science, 9, 8.
Teasdale, G and Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet. Jul 13 2(7872):81-4.
Temkin, NR, Dikmen, SS and Wilensky, AJ, et al. (1990). A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. N Engl J Med. Aug 23 323(8):497-502.
Thurman, D. (1997). Surveillance of TBI-Colorado, Missouri, Oklahoma and Utah, 1990-1993. MMWR. January:10(46,1):8-11
US National Institutes of Health.(1998). Rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury. NIH Consensus Statement Oct 26-28; 16(1): 1-41.
Van Woerkom, TC, Teelken, AW and Minderhoud, JM, et al. (1977). Difference in neurotransmitter metabolism in frontotemporal lobe contusion and diffuse cerebral contusion. Lancet 1:812-813.
Walker, WC, Seel, RT and Curtiss G, et al.(2005). Headache after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Sep 86 (9):1793-800.
Whitnall, L, McMillan, TM and Murray, GD, et al.(2006). Disability in young people and adults after head injury: 5-7 year follow up of a prospective cohort study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. May 77(5):640-5.
Whyte, J, Hart, T and Schuster, K, et al.(1997). Effects of methylphenidate on attentional function after traumatic brain injury. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil Nov-Dec 76(6):440-50.
Yablon, SA. (1993). Posttraumatic seizures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Sep 74(9):983-1001.
Zafonte, RD, Lexell, J and Cullen N.(2001). Possible applications for dopaminergic agents following traumatic brain injury: part 2. J Head Trauma Rehabil Feb 16(1):112-6.
Zafonte, RD, Mann, NR and Millis SR, et al. (1997). Posttraumatic amnesia: its relation to functional outcome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Oct 78(10):1103-6.
Zhang, R., Liu, Y., Yan, K., Chen, L., Chen, X., Li, P., . . . Jiang, X. (2013). Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in experimental traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 10, 871.
Zhang, Z., Zoltewicz, J. S., Mondello, S., Newsom, K. J., Yang, Z., Yang, B., . . . Wang, K. K. (2014). Human Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Autoantibody Response against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and Its Breakdown Products. PLoS ONE, 9, 3.
Zhu, H., Bian, C., Yuan, J., Chu, W., Xiang, X., Chen, F., . . . Lin, J. (2014). Curcumin attenuates acute inflammatory injury by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway in experimental traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 11, 59.
January 2015: “After PTSD, More Trauma”
2014: Expressive writing and post-traumatic growth
In the journal Traumatology, authors Hannah Stockton, Stephen Joseph, and Nigel Hunt describe an Internet-based study using expressive writing to facilitate post-traumatic growth. They find that 10 participants who wrote for 15 minutes on three separate occasions three days apart showed a significant decrease over a control group in intrusive thoughts and avoidant cognitions. The complete study may be found here:
Stockton, Hannah; Joseph, Stephen; Hunt, Nigel Traumatology: An International Journal, Vol 20(2), Jun 2014, 75-83. doi: 10.1037/h0099377
2014: DSM-5 Updates
In the DSM-5, PTSD has become part of a larger section on Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders. While the specific changes to the criteria for PTSD have been provided in another document, changes to the other diagnostic categories in this section follow:
“For a diagnosis of acute stress disorder, qualifying traumatic events are now explicit as to whether they were experienced directly, witnessed, or experienced indirectly. Also, the DSM-IV Criterion A2 regarding the subjective reaction to the traumatic event (e.g., experiencing “fear, helplessness, or horror”) has been eliminated. Adjustment disorders are reconceptualised as a heterogeneous array of stress-response syndromes that occur after exposure to a distressing (traumatic or nontraumatic) event, rather than as a residual category for individuals who exhibit clinically significant distress but whose symptoms do not meet criteria for a more discrete disorder (as in DSM-IV).
DSM-5 criteria for PTSD differ significantly from the DSM-IV criteria. The stressor criterion (Criteria A) is more explicit with regard to events that qualify as ‘traumatic’ experiences. Also, DSM-IV Criterion A2 (subjective reaction) has been eliminated. Whereas there were three major symptom clusters in DSM-IV – reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and arousal – there are now four symptom clusters in DSM-5, because the avoidance/numbing cluster is divided into two distinct clusters: avoidance and persistent negative alterations in cognitions and mood. This latter category, which retains most of the DSM-IV numbing symptoms, also includes new or reconceptualised symptoms, such as persistent negative emotional states. The final cluster – alterations in arousal and reactivity – retains most of the DSM-IV arousal symptoms. It also includes irritable behavior or angry outbursts and reckless or self-destructive behavior. PTSD is now developmentally sensitive in that diagnostic thresholds have been lowered for children and adolescents. Furthermore, separate criteria have been added for children age 6 years or younger with this disorder.
The DSM-IV childhood diagnosis reactive attachment disorder had two subtypes: emotionally withdrawn/inhibited and indiscriminately social/disinhibited. In DSM-5, these subtypes are defined as distinct disorders: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder.”
Acute Stress Disorder Diagnostic Criteria, DSM-5
- Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation in one (or more) of the following ways:
- Directly experiencing the traumatic event(s).
- Witnessing, in person, the event(s) as it occurred to others.
- Learning that the traumatic event(s) occurred to a close family member or close friend. In cases of actual or threatened death of a family member or friend, the event(s) must have been violent or accidental.
- Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic event(s) (e.g., first responders collecting human remains; police officers repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse).`
Note: This does not apply to exposure through electronic media, television, movies, or pictures, unless this exposure is work related.
- Presence of nine (or more) of the following symptoms from any of the five categories of intrusion, negative mood, dissociation, avoidance, and arousal, beginning or worsening after the traumatic event(s) occurred:
- Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation in one (or more) of the following ways:
- Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic event(s). Note: In children, repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the traumatic event(s) are expressed.
- Recurrent distressing dreams in which the content and/or affect of the dream are related to the event(s). Note: In children, there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content.
- Dissociative reactions (e.g., flashbacks) in which the individual feels or acts as if the traumatic event(s) were recurring. (Such reactions may occur on a continuum, with the most extreme expression being a complete loss of awareness of present surroundings.) Note: In children, trauma-specific re-enactment may occur in play.
- Intense or prolonged psychological distress or marked physiological reactions in response to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event(s).
- Persistent inability to experience positive emotions (e.g., inability to experience happiness, satisfaction, or loving feelings).
- An altered sense of the reality of one’s surroundings or oneself (e.g., seeing oneself from another’s perspective, being in a daze, time slowing).
- Inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic event(s) (typically due to dissociative amnesia and not to other factors such as head injury, alcohol, or drugs).
- Efforts to avoid distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s).
- Efforts to avoid external reminders (people, places, conversations, activities, objects, situations) that arouse distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic event(s).
- Sleep disturbance (e.g., difficulty falling or staying asleep, restless sleep).
- Irritable behavior and angry outbursts (with little or no provocation), typically expressed as verbal or physical aggression toward people or objects.
- Problems with concentration.
- Exaggerated startle response.
- Duration of the disturbance (symptoms in Criterion B) is 3 days to 1 month after trauma exposure.
Note: Symptoms typically begin immediately after the trauma, but persistence for at least 3 days and up to a month is needed to meet disorder criteria.
- The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
- The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., medication or alcohol) or another medical condition (e.g., mild traumatic brain injury) and is not better explained by brief psychotic disorder.
Reactive Attachment Disorder, DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria
- A consistent pattern of inhibited, emotionally withdrawn behavior toward adult caregivers, manifested by both of the following:
- The child rarely or minimally seeks comfort when distressed.
- The child rarely or minimally responds to comfort when distressed.
- A persistent social and emotional disturbance characterized by at least two of the following:
- Minimal social and emotional responsiveness to others.
- Limited positive affect.
- Episodes of unexplained irritability, sadness, or fearfulness that are evident even during nonthreatening interactions with adult caregivers.
- The child has experienced a pattern of extremes of insufficient care as evidenced by at least one of the following:
- Social neglect or deprivation in the form of persistent lack of having basic emotional needs for comfort, stimulation, and affection met by caregiving adults.
- Repeated changes of primary caregivers that limit opportunities to form stable attachments (e.g. frequent changes in foster care).
- Rearing in unusual settings that severely limit opportunities to form selective attachments (e.g., institutions with high child-to-caregiver ratios).
- The care in Criterion C is presumed to be responsible for the disturbed behavior in Criterion A (e.g., the disturbances in Criterion A began following the lack of adequate care in Criterion C).
- The criteria are not met for autism spectrum disorder.
- The disturbance is evident before age 5 years.
- The child has a developmental age of at least 9 months.
Persistent: The disorder has been present for more than 12 months.
Specify current severity:
Reactive attachment disorder is specified as severe when a child exhibits all symptoms of the disorder, with each symptom manifesting at relatively high levels.
Post Traumatic Growth
Post-Traumatic Growth This video introduces Post-Traumatic Growth fundamental concepts, clinical implications, and current research. By first describing what classifies as a traumatic event and then processing the ways in which trauma can be growth producing, this video present the general process model for Post-Traumatic Growth as well as the different forms of growth that occur post trauma.
- Adenauer, H., Catani, C., Gola, H., Kei,l J., Ruf, M., Schauer, M., Neuner, F. (2011). Narrative exposure therapy for PTSD increases top-down processing of aversive stimuli-evidence from a randomized controlled treatment trial. BMC Neurosci Dec 19;12:127. doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-12-127.
- Alisic, E. and Kleber, R.J. (2010). Measuring Posttraumatic stress reactions in children: A preliminary validation of the children’s responses to trauma inventory. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 3(3):192–204.
- Allbaugh, L. J., Wright, M. O., and Folger, S. F. (2016). The role of repetitive thought in determining posttraumatic growth and distress following interpersonal trauma. Anxiety Stress Coping 29, 21–37. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2015.1015422
- American Psychological Association (2015). Trauma.
- Bachem, R., Maercker, A. (2016) Development and psychometric evaluation of a revised Sense of Coherence Scale. European Journal of Assessment, March 14, 2016; 34 (7); 443
- Barrington, A., and Shakespeare-Finch, J. (2013). Posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic depreciation as predictors of psychological adjustment. J. Loss Trauma 18, 429–443. doi: 10.1080/15325024.2012.714210
- Bellizzi, K.M.; Smith, A.W.; Reeve, B.B.; Alfano, C.M.; Bernstein, L.; Meeske, K., et al. (2010). Posttraumatic growth and health-related quality of life in a racially diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors. J Health Psychol, 15, 615–626. pmid:20460418
- Benard, B. (2011). Fostering Resiliency in Kids: Protective Factors in Family, School and Community. New York: Nabu Press.
- Bi, C., Oyserman, D. (2015). Left behind or moving forward? Effects of possible selves and strategies to attain them among rural Chinese children. Journal of Adolescence, 2015; 44: 245
- Bjorck, J. P., & Byron, K. J. (2014). Does Stress-Related Growth Involve Constructive Changes in Coping Intentions? Journal of Positive Psychology,9, 97-107. doi:10.1080/17439760.2013.858273
- Blix, I., Birkeland, M. S., Hansen, M. B., & Heir, T. (2016). Posttraumatic growth—An antecedent and outcome of posttraumatic stress: Cross-Lagged associations among individuals exposed to terrorism. Clinical Psychological Science. doi: 10.1177/2167702615615866
- Blix, I., Hansen, M. B., Birkeland, M. S., Nissen, A., & Heir, T. (2013). Posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress and psychological adjustment in the aftermath of the 2011 Oslo bombing attack. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 11, 160.
- Bluvstein, I.; Moravchick, L.; Sheps, D.; Schreiber, S. and Bloch, M. (2013). Posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms and mental health among coronary heart disease survivors. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 20: 164–172. pmid:22886704
- Cadell, S. (2014). Parents of severely ill children see benefits as caregivers, says study. ScienceDaily, 24 April 2014.
- Calhoun, L. G., Cann, A., & Tedeshi, R. G. (2010). The post-traumatic growth model: sociocultural considerations. In T. Weiss & R. Berger (Eds.), Post-Traumatic Growth and Culturally Competent Practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. pps 1-14.
- Calhoun, L. G., and Tedeschi, R. G. (2013). Posttraumatic Growth in Clinical practice. Abingdon: Routledge.
- Cann, A., Calhoun, L. G., Tedeschi, R. G., and Solomon, D. T. (2010). Posttraumatic growth and depreciation as independent experiences and predictors of well-being. J. Loss Trauma 15, 151–166. doi: 10.1080/15325020903375826
- Cann, A., Calhoun, L. G., Tedeschi, R. G., Triplett, K. N., Vishnevsky, T., and Lindstrom, C. M. (2011). Assessing posttraumatic cognitive processes: the event related rumination inventory. Anxiety Stress Coping 24, 137–156. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2010.529901
- Chen, J., and Wu, X. (2017). Post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth among children and adolescents following an earthquake: a latent profile analysis. Child Adolesc. Ment. Health 22, 23–29. doi: 10.1111/camh.12175
- Chen J, Zhou X, Zeng M, Wu X (2015) Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-Traumatic Growth: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study following an Earthquake Disaster. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0127241. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127241
- Connerty, T.J. and Knott, V. (2013). Promoting positive change in the face of adversity: experiences of cancer and post-traumatic growth. Eur J of Cancer Care, 22(3):334–44.
- Cormio, C., Romito, F., Viscanti, G., Turaccio, M., Lorusso, V., & Mattioli, V. (2014). Psychological well-being and posttraumatic growth in caregivers of cancer patients. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1342, 1-8.
- Cox, K. S. (2010). Elevation predicts domain-specific volunteerism 3 months later. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5: 333-341.
- Danhauer, S., Case, L., Tedeschi, R., Russell, G., Vishnevsky, T., Triplett, K., Ip, E., Avis, N. (2013) Predictors of posttraumatic growth in women with breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 2013; 35 (3): 446
- Day, M. (2013). The Role of initial physical activity experiences in promoting post-traumatic growth in Para-olympic athletes with an acquired disability. Disability and Rehabilitation, 35, No. 24: 2064-2072.
- Day, M. C., and Wadey, R. (2016). Narratives of trauma, recovery, and growth: the complex role of sport following permanent acquired disability. Psychol. Sport Exerc. 22, 131–138. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.07.004
- Dekel, S., Ein-Dor, T. and Solomon, Z. (2012). Posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic distress: A longitudinal study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4: 94–101.
- Dekel, S., Mandl, C., Solomon, Z. (2013). Is the Holocaust Implicated in Posttraumatic Growth in Second-Generation Holocaust Survivors? A Prospective Study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2013; 26 (4): 530
- DeSteno, D., Bartlett, M. Y., Baumann, J., Williams, L. A., & Dickens, L. (2010). Gratitude as moral sentiment: Emotion-guided cooperation in economic exchange. Emotion, 10: 289-293.
- Dilip J., Colin D., Ipsit V. (2010). Successful cognitive and emotional aging. World Psychiatry. June, 9(2): 78-84.
- Duan, W., Guo, P., & Gan, P. (2015). Relationships among Trait Resilience, Virtues, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, and Post-traumatic Growth. PLoS ONE, 10, 5.
- Engelhard, I. M., Lommen, M. J. J., & Sijbrandij, M. (2015). Changing for better or worse? Posttraumatic growth reported by soldiers deployed to Iraq. Clinical Psychological Science, 3, 789-796. doi: 10.1177/2167702614549800
- Gallaway, M.S.; Millikan, A.M. and Bell, M.R. (2011). The association between deployment‐related posttraumatic growth among US army soldiers and negative behavioral health conditions. J Clin Psychol, 67(12):1151–1160. pmid:22042556
- Giampietro, E. (2013). Cancer has given me a greater appreciation for life. The American Society of Clinical Oncology, December, 4 (20).
- Graber, R. (2017). That’s what friends are for. ScienceDaily, 20 April 2017.
- Hafstad, G.S.; Gil-Rivas, V.; Kilmer, R.P. and Raeder, S. (2010). Parental Adjustment, Family Functioning, and Posttraumatic Growth among Norwegian Children and Adolescents Following a Natural Disaster. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 80(2):248–257. pmid:20553518
- Hall, B. J., Saltzman, L. Y., Canetti, D., & Hobfoll, S. E. (2015). A Longitudinal Investigation of the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth in a Cohort of Israeli Jews and Palestinians during Ongoing Violence. PLoS ONE, 10, 4.
- Hallam, W., Morris, R. (2013) Post-traumatic growth in stroke carers: A comparison of theories. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2013; 33 (6); 332
- Hefferon, K. (2012). Bringing back the body into Positive Psychology: The Theory of Corporeal Posttraumatic Growth in Breast Cancer Survivorship. Psychology, 3: 1238–1242.
- Hefferon, K., Grealy, M., Mutrie, N. (2010). Transforming from cocoon to butterfly: The potential role of the body in the process of posttraumatic growth. J Humanist Psychol, 50, 224–247.
- Howard Sharp, K. M., Willard, V. W., Barnes, S., Tillery, R., Long, A., & Phipps, S. (2016). Emotion Socialization in the Context of Childhood Cancer: Perceptions of Parental Support Promotes Posttraumatic Growth. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 42, 1, 95-103.
- Infurna, F., Luthar, S. (2016). Resilience to Major Life Stressors Is Not as Common as Thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2016; 11 (2): 175
- Jeste, D.V.; Depp, C.A.; and Vahia, I.V. (2010). Successful cognitive and emotional aging, World Psychiatry Jun;9(2):78-84.
- Jia, X., Ying, L., Zhou, X., Wu, X., & Lin, C. (2015). The Effects of Extraversion, Social Support on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Growth of Adolescent Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake. PLoS ONE, 10, 3.
- Jordan, G., Malla, A., & Iyer, S. N. (2016). Posttraumatic growth following a first episode of psychosis: a mixed methods research protocol using a convergent design. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 262.
- Joseph, S. (2013). What Doesn’t Kill Us: The New Psychology of Post-Traumatic Growth. New York: Basic Books.
- Kampman, H., Hefferon, K., Wilson, M. and Beale, J. (2015). “I Can Do Things Now That People Thought Were Impossible, Actually, Things That I Thought Were Impossible”: A Meta-Synthesis of the Qualitative Findings on Posttraumatic Growth and Severe Physical Injury. Can Psychol, 53 (3): 283–294.
- Karanci, A.N.; Iş1kl1, S.; Aker, A.T.; Gül, E.İ.; Erkan, B.B.; Özkol, H., et al. (2012). Personality, posttraumatic stress and trauma type: factors contributing to posttraumatic growth and its domains in a Turkish community sample. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 3.
- Kimhi, S.; Eshel, Y.; Zysberg, L. and Hantman, S. (2010). Postwar winners and losers in the long run: determinants of war related stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth. Community Ment Health J, 46(1):10–19. pmid:19229610
- Klose, M., Stochholm, K., Janukonyté, J., Christensen, L. L., Frystyk, J., Andersen, M., . . . Feldt-Rasmussen, U. (2014). Prevalence of Posttraumatic Growth Hormone Deficiency Is Highly Dependent on the Diagnostic Set-up: Results From The Danish National Study on Posttraumatic Hypopituitarism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 99, 1, 101-110.
- Kroemeke, A., Bargiel-Matusiewicz, K., and Kalamarz, M. (2017). Mixed psychological changes following mastectomy: unique predictors and heterogeneity of post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic depreciation. Front. Psychol. 8:1245. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01245
- Lindstrom, C. M., Cann, A., Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2013). The relationship of core belief challenge, rumination,disclosure, and sociocultural elements to posttraumatic growth. Psychological Trauma, 5(1), 50-55. doi:10.1037/a0022030
- Mancini, A. (2016). The Trouble with Post-Traumatic Growth. Psychology Today, June. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/rethinking-trauma/201606/the-trouble-post-traumatic-growth
- Mancini, A. D., Littleton, H. L., & Grills, A. E. (2016). Can people benefit from acute stress? Social support, psychological improvement, and resilience after the Virginia Tech campus shootings. Clinical Psychological Science, 4, 401-417. doi: 10.1177/2167702615601001
- Manly, J. (2013). The impact of trauma on attachment relationships.
- McCanlies, E., Mnatsakanova, A., Andrew, M., Burchfiel, C., Violanti, J. (2014). Positive Psychological Factors are Associated with Lower PTSD Symptoms among Police Officers: Post Hurricane Katrina. Stress and Health, 2014; 30 (5): 405
- McElheran, M.; Briscoe-Smith, A.; Khaylis, A.; Westrup, D.; Hayward, C. and Gore-Felton, C. (2012). A conceptual model of post-traumatic growth among children and adolescents in the aftermath of sexual abuse. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 25: 73–82.
- Meyerson, D.A.; Grant, K.E.; Carter, J.S. and Kilmer, R.P. (2011). Posttraumatic growth among children and adolescents: A systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev, 8;31(6):949–964. pmid:21718663
- Morgan, K., Desmarais, S. (2017). Associations Between Time Since Event and Posttraumatic Growth Among Military Veterans. Military Psychology, 2017; 22 (5); 889
- Dorotik-Nana, C. (2015). Leverage: The Science of Turning Setbacks into Springboards. Createspace, 2015
- Park CL. (2010). Making sense of the meaning literature: an integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events. Psychol Bull, 136(2):257–301. pmid:20192563
- Panter-Brick, C., Hadfield, K., Dajani, R., Eggerman, M., Ager, A., Ungar. M. (2017). Resilience in Context: A Brief and Culturally Grounded Measure for Syrian Refugee and Jordanian Host-Community Adolescents. Child Development, 2017; 9 (6): 442
- Phipps, S., Klosky, J., Long, A., Hudson, M., Huang, Q., Zhang, H., Noll, R. (2017) Most Children With Cancer Are Well-adjusted, Psychologist Reports. ScienceDaily, 24 September 2017.
- Post-Traumatic Growth Research Group (2013). What is Post-Traumatic Growth?
- Purc-Stephenson, R., Bowlby, D., and Qaqish, S. T. (2015). “A gift wrapped in barbed wire” positive and negative life changes after being diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease. Qual. Life Res. 24, 1197–1205. doi: 10.1007/s11136-014-0843-840
- Ramos, C., Leal, I., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2016). Protocol for the psychotherapeutic group intervention for facilitating posttraumatic growth in nonmetastatic breast cancer patients. BMC Women’s Health, 16, 22.
- Rudd, M., Vohs, K. D., & Aaker, J. L. (in press). Awe expands people’s perception of time and enhances well-being. Psychological Science, 27 (7): 132-145.
- Sagi-Schwartz, A. Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., Linn, S., van Ijzendoorn, M. (2013) Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (7): e6917
- Shi, W., Hoskisson, R., Zhang, Y. (2016). Independent Director Death and CEO Acquisitiveness: Build an Empire or Pursue a Quiet Life? Strategic Management Journal, 2016; 12 (8) 1002
- Shigemoto, Y. and Poyrazli, S. (2013). Factors related to posttraumatic growth in US and Japanese college students. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5: 128–134.
- Schnall, S., Roper, J., & Fessler, D. M. T. (2010). Elevation leads to altruistic behavior. Psychological Science, 21(6): 315-320.
- Schoulte, J.; Sussman, Z.; Tallman, B.; Deb, M.; Cornick, C.; and Altmaier, E. (2012). Is There Growth in Grief: Measuring Posttraumatic Growth in the Grief Response. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 1(3): 38-43. DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2012.13007.
- Segal, J., & Jaffe, J. (2014). Attachment and adult relationships: How the attachment bond shapes adult relationships.
- Seligman, M. (2012) Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Wellbeing. New York: Atria Books.
- Siqveland, J., Nygaard, E., Hussain, A., Tedeschi, R. G., & Heir, T. (2015). Posttraumatic growth, depression and posttraumatic stress in relation to quality of life in tsunami survivors: a longitudinal study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 13, 18.
- Sloan, D.M.; Marx, B.P. and Greenberg, E.M. (2011). A test of written emotional disclosure as an intervention for post-traumatic stress disorder. Behavioral Residential Therapy. 49 (4): 299–304. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.02.001 PMCID: PMC3898617 NIHMSID: NIHMS546608
- Tallman, B.; Shaw, K.; Schultz, J. and Altmaier, E. (2010). Well-being and posttraumatic growth in unrelated donor marrow transplant survivors: a nine-year longitudinal study. Rehab psychol, 55, 204.
- Tedeschi, R. G., Shakespeare-Finch, J., Taku, K., and Calhoun, L. G. (2018). Posttraumatic Growth: Theory, Research, and Applications. New York: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9781315527451
- United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2014).
- Violanti, J. (2016). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers’ Physical And Mental Health. ScienceDaily, 29 September 2006.
- Vishnevsky, T.; Calhoun, L.G.; Tedeschi, R.G. and Demakis, G.J. (2010). Gender Differences in Self-Reported Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34:110–120.
- Whitfield, C. (2010). Psychiatric drugs as agents of trauma. The International Journal of Risk and Safety. Medicine, 22 (4): 195–207.
- Yu, X.; Lau, J.T.; Zhang, J.; Mak, W.W.; Choi, K.C.; Lui, W.W., et al. (2010). Posttraumatic growth and reduced suicidal ideation among adolescents at month 1 after the Sichuan Earthquake. J Affect Disord, 123(1):327–331.
- Zerach, P., Solomon, F., Cohen, M., & Ein-Dor, H. (2013). PTSD, resilience and post- traumatic growth among ex-prisoners of war and combat veterans. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci, 50 (2): 1123-1125.
- Zhou, X., Wu, X.C., An, Y.Y. and Chen, J.L. (2014). The roles of rumination and social support in the associations between core belief challenge and post-traumatic growth among adolescent survivors after the Wenchuan earthquake. Acta Psychologica Sinica (in Chinese), 46: 1–12.
- Zięba M, Wiecheć K, Biegańska-Banaś J and Mieleszczenko-Kowszewicz W (2019) Coexistence of Post-traumatic Growth and Post-traumatic Depreciation in the Aftermath of Trauma: Qualitative and Quantitative Narrative Analysis. Front. Psychol. 10:687. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00687
Crisis & Trauma
- Austin Riggs Center
- Babette Rothschild, MSW
- Casa Palmera
- Christine A Courtois Ph.D. & Associates PLC: Trauma Treatment, Life Transitions & Wellness Services
- EMDR Institute Home Page
- EMDR – Europe Association
- EMDR-Institut: Deutschland
- FHE — Peter Levine’s Foundation for Human Enrichment
- Healing Heart Center
- McLean Hospital
- Menninger Clinic & Hospital
- NLP Works for PTSD
- Risking Connection
- Sensorimotor Psychotherapy Institute: Hakomi Somatics Institute
- Sheppard Pratt
- The Center at PIW
- The Institute for Staged Recovery
- The Meadows
- The Refuge: PTSD and Trauma Treatment Center
- The Retreat at Sheppart-Pratt
- The TARA Approach
- Timberline Knolls
- Traumatic Incident Reduction
- Two Rivers Psychiatric Hospital
American Trauma Society (ATS)
An organization supporting trauma care and trauma prevention in the United States as well as advocate for trauma victims and their families.
Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF)
Mission is to improve the outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients by developing best practice guidelines, conducting clinical research and educating medical personnel.
Child Trauma Academy (CTA)
Helps improve the lives of traumatized and maltreated children – through education, service delivery and program consultation.
Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA)
Promotes excellence in care for the injured patient, through provision of scientific forums and support of musculoskeletal research and education of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the public.
- APA Topics: Trauma:
American Psychological Association webpage offers information on emotional trauma.
- International Critical Incident Stress Foundation
- A Critical View on Debriefing, by Richard Gist, Ph.D.
For Those Suffering with Combat Trauma
- PTSD Support Services
- VVA’s GUIDE on PTSD
Vietnam Veterans of America’s guide to obtaining benefits for exposure to traumatic events in combat leading to PTSD.
- Make the Connection
This site provides video testimonials and resources to help Veterans with mental health conditions such as PTSD and depression.
- Military Veterans PTSD Reference Manual
Website describes a 200+ page book for veterans with disability; available from the author.
- Tragedy Assistance Program for Survivors
TAPS offers services to any who have lost a loved one on active duty, via a peer support network.
- Rape Trauma Syndrome
Brief article by Amy Menna on rape trauma describes the symptoms and negative beliefs that may follow sexual assault.
- Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests
SNAP is a self-help organization of men and women sexually abused by spiritual elders; provides support to all victims of clergy abuse.
- Generation Five
Generation Five’s mission is ending child sexual abuse within five generations.
- Sex Abuse of Males: Prevalence, Lasting Effects, and Resources
Extended excerpts from a masters thesis on sexual abuse in males, written by Jim Hopper at U. Massachusetts at Boston.
- NOMSV: Male Survivor
Site focused on overcoming sexual victimization of boys and men: lots of information here.
- Dancing in the Darkness
An informative web resource for sexual abuse survivors; includes much useful information and a support chat room.
- What’s Your Fear? – For Abuse Survivors and Their Dentists
Practical article on dental fears common among survivors of childhood abuse, with good suggestions for dentists and their patients.
- SurvivorShip Home Page
An international forum on survival of sadistic sexual abuse, ritualistic abuse, mind control & torture.
- Sexual Abuse Treatment: Referral, Resource, and Research
Matthew Rosenberg’s site focuses on prevention, treatment and education re: sexual offending.
- Women Veterans: Sexual Harrassment and Assault
Captain Barb’s page on PTSD among women who experienced sexual trauma while in the military, and what to do.
- Victims of Crime: Justice Information Center
Information and many useful links from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service.
- Office for Victims of Crime
US Dept. of Justice site, focused on crime victims; includes information, training, funding, etc.
- National Organization for Victim Assistance
Home page for NOVA, an organization working on behalf of victims of crime and disaster.
- Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence
The CSPV, at UC-Boulder, assists those committed to understanding and preventing violence.
- National Crime Prevention Council: Online Resource Center
NCPC site includes useful information about crime prevention, community building, and planning.
- First Response to Victims of Crime
A handbook for law enforcement officers on how to approach and help crime victims.
- Police Occupational Trauma
John Violanti’s article describes consequences of trauma exposure in the police occupation.
- Peer Support Training Institute
PSTI’s specialized peer support training aims to reduce stress in police officers and others, in NYC.
- A Cybrary of the Holocaust
Site focuses on research and discussion forums, aiming to educate and preserve memories.
- Center for Victims of Torture
CVT works locally, nationally, and internationally to heal the wounds of torture, and to stop torture worldwide.
- Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation
CSVR is a South African organization dedicated to peaceful transformation; many articles here.
- International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims
The IRCT, in Denmark, promotes treatment of torture victims and contributes to torture prevention.
- Trauma Exposure Measures
These assessment instruments measure the types of trauma a person has been exposed to, or the degree of severity of the traumatic event someone experienced. For each measure, a brief description, sample items, versions, and references are provided. Information on how to obtain the measure is also provided. The chart provides a comparison of the trauma exposure measures.
- Combat Exposure Scale
For use with those who have provided military service.
- Evaluation of Lifetime Stressors
The Evaluation of Lifetime Stressors (ELS) is an assessment protocol for adolescents or adults comprised of a self-report questionnaire and semi-structured interview that examines a range of traumatic experiences across the lifespan.
- Life Stressor Checklist – Revised (LSC-R)
The Life Stressor Checklist-Revised is a self-report measure that assesses traumatic or stressful life events. The questionnaire includes 30 life events, including experiences with natural disasters, physical or sexual assault, death of a relative and other events and follows a yes/no format.
- Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ)
The TLEQ is a 23-item self-report measure of 22 types of potentially traumatic events including natural disasters, exposure to warfare, robbery involving a weapon, physical abuse and being stalked.
- Trauma Exposure Measures
Trauma Sequelae and PTSD Measures:
- Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children™ (TSCC™)
The TSCC is a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress and related psychological symptomatology in children ages 8-16 years who have experienced traumatic events (e.g., physical or sexual abuse, major loss, natural disaster, witnessing violence).
- Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children™ (TSCYC™)
The TSCYC was developed to be the first fully standardized and normed broadband trauma measure for children as young as 3 years of age. Its 90items can be completed by an adult caretaker.
- Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress™ (DAPS™)
The DAPS is a 104-item, detailed, and comprehensive clinical measure of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress in individuals ages 18 years and older who have a history of exposure to one or more potentially traumatic events.
- American Psychiatric Association (APA) (1994), DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS, Fourth Edition.
- Auerbach, S. & Kilmann, P. (1997). Crisis intervention: A review of outcome research. Psychological Bulletin, 84,1189-1217.
- Bennett, H., & Wells, A. (2010). Metacognition, memory disorganization and rumination in post-traumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14, 318–325.
- Benoit, R. G., & Anderson, M. C. (2012). Opposing mechanisms support the voluntary forgetting of unwanted memories. Neuron, 76, 450-460.
- Bentzen, Marianne; Jorgensen, Steen; and Marcher, Lisbeth (1989), The Bodynamic Character Structure Model, Energy and Character, Vol. 20, No. 1.
- Bisson, J., Jenkins, P., Alexander, J., & Bannister, C. (1997). Randomized controlled trial of psychological debriefing for victims of acute burn trauma. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 78-81.
- Bloch, George, Ph.D. (1985), BODY AND SELF: Elements of Human Biology, Behavior, and Health. William Kaufmann, Inc., California, USA.
- Bohl, N. (1991). The effectiveness of brief psychological interventions in police officers after critical incidents. In Reese, J., Horn, J., & Dunning, C. (Eds.). Critical incidents in policing. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 31-88.
- Bordow, S. & Porritt, D. (1979). An experimental evaluation of crisis intervention. Social Science and Medicine, 13, 251- 256.
- Bowenkamp, CD (2000). Coordination of Mental Health and Community Agencies in Disaster Response. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2(3), 159-165. Retrieved from http://www.icisf.us/images/pdfs/rar/Coordination%20of%20Mental%20Health %20&%20Community%20Agencies%20in%20Disaster%20Response.pdf.
- Braun, Bennett G., M.D. (1988), The BASK Model of Dissociation, Dissociation, 1:1, March.
- Bremmer, JD, Southwick, S, Brett, E, Fontana, A, Rosenheck, R & Charney, DS (1992), Dissociation and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Vietnam Combat Veterans, American Journal of Psychiatry, 149.
- Breslau, N, Davis, GC, Andreski, P & Peterson, E (1991), Traumatic Events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in an Urban Population of Young Adults, Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, .
- Brett, EA (1996), The Classification of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, in van der Kolk, B.A., McFarlane, AC, & Weisaeth, L (Eds.) TRAUMATIC STRESS, Guilford Press.
- Brom, D., Kleber, R., & Hofman, M. (1993). Victims of traffic accidents: Incidence and prevention of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 131-140.
- Bunn, T.A. & Clarke, A.M. (1979). Crisis intervention: An experimental study of the effect of a brief period of counseling on the anxiety of relatives of seriously injured or ill hospital patients. British Journal of Psychology, 52, 191-195.
- Busuttil, A., Turnbull, G., Neal, L., Rollins, J., West, A., Blanch, N., & Herepath, R. (1995). Incorporating psychological debriefing techniques within a brief therapy programmer for the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 495-502.
- Butcher, J.N. (1980). The role of crisis intervention in an airport disaster plan. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 51, 1260-1262.
- Chemtob, C., Tomas, S., Law, W., & Cremmiter, D. (1997). Post-disaster psychosocial intervention: A field study of the impact of debriefing on psychological distress. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 415-417.
- Cloitre, M., Courtois, C. A., Charuvastra, A., Carapezza, R., Stolbach, B. C., & Green, B. L. (2011). Treatment of complex PTSD: Results of the ISTSS expert clinician survey on best practices. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 615– 627.
- Cloitre, M., Garvert, D. W., Weiss, B., Carlson, E. B., & Bryant, R. A. (2014). Distinguishing PTSD, complex PTSD, and borderline personality disorder: A latent class analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5, 25907.
- Connor, D. F., Ford, J. D., Arnsten, A. F., & Greene, C. A. (2015). An update on posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Clinical Pediatrics, 54, 517–528.
- Courtois, C. A., & Ford, J. D. (Eds.). (2014). Treating complex traumatic stress disorders: Scientific foundations and therapeutic models. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes error. New York: Putnam¹s Sons.
- Diamond, MC, Scheibel, AB, & Elson, LM (1985), THE HUMAN BRAIN COLORING BOOK, Harper Perenial.
- Ehlers, A., Mayou, R. A., & Bryant, B. (2003). Cognitive predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in children: Results of a prospective longitudinal study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1–10.
- Elliott, Diana M (1997), Traumatic Events: Prevalence and Delayed Recall in the General Population, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 811-820.
- Everly, Jr., G.S. (2000 ). Five Principles of Crisis Intervention: Reducing the Risk of Premature Crisis Intervention. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2(1), 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.icisf.us/images/pdfs/rar/Five%20Principles%20of%20Crisis%20Intervention.pdf.
- Everly, Jr., G.S. & Boyle, S. (1999). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD): A meta-analytic review of effectiveness. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 1(3), 165-168.
- Everly, Jr.,G.S. & Lating, J.T, Eds. (1995). Psychotraumatology: Key papers and core concepts in posttraumatic stress. New York: Plenum.
- Everly, Jr., G.S. & Mitchell, J.T. (1999). Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM): A new era and standard of care in crisis intervention (2nd Ed.). Ellicott City, MD: Chevron.
- Everly, Jr., G.S., & Quatrano-Piacentini, A. (1999, March). The effects of CISD on trauma symptoms: A meta-analysis. Paper presented to the APA-NIOSH Conference on Work, Stress, and Health in a Global Economy, Baltimore, MD.
- Everly, Jr., G.S., Boyle, S., & Lating, J. (1999). The effectiveness of psychological debriefings in vicarious trauma: A meta-analysis. Stress Medicine, 15, 229-233.
- Everly, Jr., G.S., Flannery, Jr., R.B., & Eyler, V. (2000, April). Effectiveness of a comprehensive crisis intervention system: A meta-analysis. Invited paper presented to the Third International Conference, Psychological & Social Services in a Changing Society. Kuwait City, State of Kuwait.
- Figley, Charles R., Ph.D. (1985), TRAUMA AND ITS WAKE, Volume I: The Study and Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Brunner/Mazel.
- Flannery, R.B., Jr., and Everly, G.S. (2000). Crisis Intervention: A Review. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2000, 2(2), 119-125. Retrieved from http://www.icisf.us/images/pdfs/rar/Crisis%20Intervention%20A%20Review.pdf, .
- Flannery & Everly/CRISIS INTERVENTION: A REVIEW Everly, Jr., G.S., Flannery, Jr., R.B., & Mitchell, J. T. (2000). Critical Incident Stress Management: A review of literature. Aggression and violent behavior: A review journal, 5, 23-40.
- Flannery, Jr., R.B. (1994). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The victim’s guide to healing and recovery. New York: Crossroad Press.
- Flannery, Jr., R.B. (1995). Violence in the workplace. New York: Crossroad Press.
- Flannery, Jr., R.B. (1998). The Assaulted Staff Action Program: Coping with the psychological aftermath of violence. Ellicott City, MD: Chevron.
- Flannery, Jr., R.B.(1999). Critical Incident Stress Management and the Assaulted Staff Action Program. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 1(2), 103-108.
- Flannery, Jr., R.B.(2000). Psychological Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 1999, 2, 135-140. Retrieved from http://www.icisf.us/images/pdfs/rar/Psychological%20Trauma%20and%20Posttraumatic%20Stress%20Disorder.pdf.
- Freud, Anna (1948), THE EGO AND THE MECHANISMS OF DEFENSE, New York.
- Gallup, Gordon G., Jr., and Maser, Jack D. (1977), Tonic Immobility: Evolutionary Underpinnings of Human Catalepsy and Catatonia, in Seligman, Martin E. P., and Masser, Jack D., PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: EXPERIMENTAL MODELS, San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company.
- Herman, Judith L., MD, (1992) TRAUMA AND RECOVERY, Basic Books.
- Hokanson, M. (1997, April). Evaluation of the effectiveness of Critical Incident Stress Management Program for the Los Angeles County Fire Department. Paper presented at the Fourth World Congress on Stress, Trauma, and Coping in the Emergency Services Professions, Baltimore.
- Hyland, P., Shevlin, M., Elklit, A., Murphy, J., Vallières, F., Garvert, D. W., & Cloitre, M. (2017). An assessment of the construct validity of the ICD-11 proposal for complex posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, And Policy, 9(1), 1-9.
- Jacobson, G., Strickler, M., & Morley, W. (1968). Generi and individual approaches to crisis intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 58, 338-343.
- Jenkins, S.R. (1996). Social support and debriefing efficacy among emergency medical workers after a mass shooting incident. Journal of Social Behavioral and Personality, 11, 477-492.
- Jorgensen, Steen, Cand. Psych., Bodynamic Analytic Work with Shock/Post-Traumatic Stress, Energy and Character, Vol. 23, No. 2, September 1992.
- Kardiner, A. & Spiegel, H. (1947). War, stress, and neurotic illness. New York: Hoeber.
- Kenardy, J.A., Webster, R.A., Levin, T.J., Carr, B.J., Hazell, P., & Cater, G.L. (1996). Stress debriefing and patterns of recovery following a natural disaster. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 37-49.
- Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., Milanak, M. E., Miller, M. W., Keyes, K. M., & Friedman, M. J. (2013). National estimates of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD prevalence using DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 537–547.
- Kluka, RA, Schlenger, WE, Fairbank, JA, Hough, RL, Jordan, BK, Marmar, CR,, & Weiss, DS (1990), TRAUMA AND THE VIETNAM WAR GENERATION: Report of findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study, New York: Brunner/Mazel.
- Leeman-Conley, M. (1990). After a violent robbery… Criminology Australia, April/May, 4-6.
- Levine, Peter, Ph.D. (1997), WAKING THE TIGER.
- Levine, Peter D., Ph.D. (1992), THE BODY AS HEALER: TRANSFORMING TRAUMA AND ANXIETY, unpublished book manuscript.
- Lindemann, E. (1944). Symptomology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101, 141-148.
- Loewenstein, Richard, J., M.D., Dissociation, Development and the Psychobiology of Trauma, Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 21(4), 1993.
- Marmar, CR, Weiss, DS, Schlenger, WE, Fairbank, JA, Jorday, K, Kulka, RA, & Hough, RL, Peritraumatic Dissociation and Posttraumatic Stress in Male Vietnam Theater Veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1994.
- McFarlane, A.C. (1988). The longitudinal course of posttraumatic morbidity: The range of outcomes and their predictors. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 30-39.
- Mitchell, J.T. & Everly, Jr., G.S (1996). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD): An operations manual for the prevention of traumatic stress among emergency services and disaster workers. Ellicott City, MD: Chevron.
- Mitchell, J.T., Schiller, G., Eyler, V.A., & Everly, Jr., G.S. (1999). Community crisis intervention: The Coldenham tragedy revisited. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 1(4), 227-236.
- Nadel, L., & Jacobs, W.J. (1996). The role of the hippocampus in PTSD, panic, and phobia. In N. Kato (Ed.), Hippocampus: Functions and clinical relevance. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
- Norman, K. A., Newman, E. L., & Detre, G. (2007). A neural network model of retrieval-induced forgetting. Psychological Review, 114, 887-953.
- Nurmi, L. (1999). The sinking of the Estonia: The effects of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing on rescuers. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 1(1), 23-32.
- Ornstein, Robert & Thompson, Richard (1986), THE AMAZING BRAIN, Houghton Mifflin, USA.
- Pennebaker, J.W. (1993). Putting stress into words: Health, linguistic, and therapeutic implications. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31(6), 539-548.
- Pennebaker, J.W. (1999). The effects of traumatic disclosure on physical and mental health. The value of writing and talking about upsetting events. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 1(1), 9-18.
- Puglisi-Allegra, Stephan, and Oliverio, Alberto (1990), PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF STRESS, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Pynoos, Robert S., Traumatic Stress and Developmental Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents, American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry, Vol. 12, 1993.
- Raphael, B. (1986). When disaster strikes. New York: Basic Books.
- Richards, D. (1999, April). A field study of CISD vs. CISM. Paper presented to the Fifth World Congress on Stress, Trauma, and Coping in the Emergency Services Professions, Baltimore.
- Robinson, R.C. & Mitchell, J.T. (1995). Getting some balance back into the debriefing debate. The Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society, 17, 5-10.
- Rossouw, P. J. (2012). Childhood trauma and neural development. Indicators for interventions with special reference to rural and remote environments. Neuropsychotherapy in Australia, 18, 3-9.
- Rothschild, B. (2003). The body remembers casebook: Unifying methods and models in the treatment of trauma and ptsd. New York: WW Norton.
- Rothschild, B. (2000). The body remembers: The psychophysiology of trauma and trauma treatment. New York: WW Norton.
- Rothschild, Babette, M.S.W. (1997), Slowing Down and Controlling Traumatic Hyperarousal, in, Vanderberger, L (Ed.) THE MANY FACES OF TRAUMA, INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES.
- Rothschild, Babette, M.S.W., A Trauma Case History, Somatics, Fall 1996/Spring 1997.
- Rothschild, Babette, M.S.W., Applying the Brakes: Theory and tools for understanding, slowing down and reducing Autonomic Nervous System activation in Traumatized Clients, Paper presented at the Tenth Scandinavian Conference for Psychotherapists working with Traumatized Refugees, 24-26 May 1996, Abo, Finland.
- Rothschild, Babette, M.S.W., Defining Shock and Trauma in Bodypsychotherapy, Energy and Character, Vol. 26, No.2, September 1995.
- Rothschild, Babette, M.S.W., and Jarlnes, Erik, Nervous System Imbalances and Post-Traumatic Stress: A Psycho-Physical Approach, Manuscript, 1994.
- Rothschild, Babette, M.S.W., A Shock Primer for the Body-Psychotherapist, Energy and Character, Vol. 24, No. 1, April 1993.
- Rothschild, Babette, M.S.W., Bodynamic Body-Psychotherapy, Radix Review, Vol. I, No. 1, 1991.
- Sandoval, J. (1985). Crisis counseling: Conceptualizations and general principles. School Psychology Review, 14, 257- 265.
- Schore, A. N. (2009). Attachment trauma and the developing right brain: Origins of pathological dissociation. In P. F. Dell & J. A. O’Neil (Eds.) Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond (pp. 141-153). New York: Routledge.
- Schwartz, S. (1971). A review of crisis intervention programs. Psychiatric Quarterly, 45, 498-508.
- Scrignar, C. B., M.D., POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: Diagnosis, Treatment and Legal Issues. Bruno Press, Louisiana, USA, 1988.
- Segovia, D. A., Strange, D., & Takarangi, M. K. (2015). Trauma memories on trial: Is cross-examination a safeguard against distorted analogue traumatic memories? Memory, 1–12.
- Selye, Hans, M.D. (1984), The Stress of Life, McGraw-Hill Book Co.
- Shalev, A.Y. (1994). Debriefing following traumatic exposure. In Ursano, R.J., McCoughey, B.G., & Fullerton, C.S. (Eds.). Individual and community response to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos, pp. 201-219 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Shin, L.M., McNally, R. J., Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., Rauch, S. L., Alpert, N. M., … Pitman, R. K. (1999). Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD: A PET investigation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 575-584.
- Skinner, B.F., “Teaching Machines”, Scientific American, 205(5):90, 1961.
- Takarangi, M. K., Smith, R. A., Strange, D., & Flowe, H. D. (2017). Metacognitive and metamemory beliefs in the development and maintenance of post-traumat- ic stress disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, 5, 131–140.
- Tehrani, N. & Westlake, R. (1994). Debriefing individuals affected by violence. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 7, 251-259.
- Tehrani, N. (1995). An integrated response to trauma in three post office businesses. Work and Stress, 9, 380-393.
- van der Kolk, Bessel A, M.D., and Fisher, Rita E., Ed.M., “The Biologic Basis of Posttraumatic Stress”, Primary Care, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1993.
- van der Kolk, Bessel, M.D. (1996a), “The Body Keeps the Score,” Harvard Psychiatric Review, Vol., 1, 1994.
- van der Kolk, B.A., McFarlane, A.C., & Weisaeth, L. (1996). (Eds.). Traumatic stress. New York: Guilford.
- WEBSTER’S NINTH NEW COLLEGIATE DICTIONARY, Mirriam-Webster, Inc., 1984.
- Wee, D.F., Mills, D.M., & Koehler, G. (1999). The effects of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing on emergency medical services personnel following the Los Angeles civil disturbance. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 1(1), 33-38.
- Wessley, S., Rose, S., & Bisson, J. (1998). A systematic review of brief psychological interventions (debriefing) for the treatment of immediate trauma related symptoms and the prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Library, Issue 3. Oxford.
- Western Management Consultants (1996). The Medical Services Branch CISM evaluation report. Vancouver, BC: Author.
- Wollman, D. (1993). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and crisis groups: A review of the literature. Group, 17, 70-83.
- Woud, M. L., Holmes, E. A., Postma, P., Dalgleish, T., & Mackintosh, B. (2012). Ameliorating intrusive memories of distressing experiences using computerized reappraisal training. Emotion, 12, 778–784.