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Risk Management

An Online Course:
Ethics Of Risk Management


General Resources for Ethical Risk Management

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Guidelines that Include Ethical Risk Management


Additional Ethical Risk Management Related Articles



  • Audet, C. T. (2011). Client perspectives of therapist self-disclosure: Violating boundaries or removing barriers?. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 24(2), 85-100.
  • Bennett, B. E., Bryant, B. K., VandenBos, G. R., & Greenwood, A. (1990). Professional liability and risk management. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bongar, B, & Sullivan. (2013). The Suicidal Patient: Clinical and Legal Standards of Care, Third Edition. APA Books
  • Bonitz, V. (2008). Use of physical touch in the “talking cure”: A journey to the outskirts of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45(3), 391-404. doi:10.1037/a0013311
  • Bundy, C, & Schreiber, M & Pascualy, M (2014). Discharging your patients who display contingency-based suicidality: 6 steps. Current Psychiatry. 2014 January;13(1):e1-e3
  • Caudill, C. O. (2004). Therapists under fire. Retrieved June 1, 2004, from
  • Doverspike, W. F. (1999). Ethical risk management: Guidelines for practice, a practical ethics handbook. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
  • Gutheil, T. G., & Gabbard, G. O. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: Theoretical and risk-management dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 188-196.
  • Jobes, D. A., & Berman, A. L. (1993). Suicide and malpractice liability: Assessing and revising policies, procedures, and practice in outpatient settings. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24(1), 91-99.
  • Lazarus, A. A. (2013). How certain boundaries and ethics diminish therapeutic effectiveness. In D. A. Sisti, A. L. Caplan, & H. Rimon-Greenspan (Eds.), Applied ethics in mental health care: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. 321-328). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Nickel, M. (2004). Professional boundaries: The dilemma of dual and multiple relationships in rural clinical practice. Consulting and Clinical Psychology Journal, 1, 17–22.
  • Reamer, F. G. (2013). Social work in a digital age: Ethical and risk management challenges. Social work, 58(2), 163-172.
  • Reamer, F. G. (2014). Risk management in social work: Preventing professional malpractice, liability, and disciplinary action. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Reamer, F. G. (2017). Ethical and risk management issues in the use of touch. In J. A. Courtney & R. D. Nolan (Eds.), Touch in child counseling and play therapy: An ethical and clinical guide. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Stolberg, R., & Bongar, B. (2009). Assessment of Suicide Risk. In (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Personality Assessment: Oxford University Press.
  • Truscott, D., Evans, J., & Mansell, S. (1995). Outpatient psychotherapy with dangerous clients: A model for clinical decision making. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26(5), 484-490.
  • Willer, J (2014). The Beginning Psychotherapist’s Companion, Second Edition. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Williams, M. H. (1997). Boundary violations: Do some contended standards of care fail to encompass commonplace procedures of Humanistic, Behavioral, and Eclectic Psychotherapies? Psychotherapy, 34(3), 238-249.
  • Williams, M. H. (2007). Risk Management: How Your Malpractice Insurer Created Testimony Against You. Symposium Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. San Francisco, August.
  • Williams, M. H. (n.d.). Total Risk Management. Retrieved from
  • Woody, R. H. (1988a). Fifty Ways to Avoid Malpractice: A Guidebook for Mental Health Professionals. Sarasota, Florida: Professional Resource Exchange.
  • Woody, R. H. (1988b). Protecting Your Mental Health Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
  • Woody, R. H. (1997). Legally Safe Mental Health Practice: Psychological Questions and Answers. Madison, Connecticut: Psychosocial Press.
  • Younggren, J. N., & Gottlieb, M. C. (2004). Managing risk when contemplating multiple relationships. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 255–260.
  • Zur, O. (2003). HIPAA wants you! Eleven reasons to become compliant and eleven simple ways to achieve compliance. The Independent Practitioner, 23, 194-198. Retrieved from
  • Zur, O. (2004). Bartering in psychotherapy and counseling: Complexities, case studies and guidelines. Zur Institute online. Retrieved from:
  • Zur, O. (2005). Dumbing down of psychology: Manufactured consent about the depravity of dual relationships in therapy. In R. H. Wright & N. A. Cummings, (Eds.) (2005). Destructive trends in mental health: The well-intentioned road to harm (pp. 253-282). New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
  • Zur, O. (2007a). Boundaries in Psychotherapy: Ethical and Clinical Explorations. Washington, DC: APA Books.
  • Zur, O. (2007b). The ethical eye: Don’t let “risk management” undermine your professional approach. Psychotherapy Networker, 48-56.
  • Management: How Risk Management Guidelines Can Increase Risk And Decrease Clinical Effectiveness. Retrieved from
  • Zur, O. (Ed.) (2017). Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.
  • Zur, O. & Gonzalez, S. (2002). Multiple relationships in military psychology. In A. A. Lazarus and O. Zur (Eds.) Dual relationships and psychotherapy (pp. 315-328). New York: Springer.

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