Supervision and E-Supervision In Psychotherapy and Counseling
Resources & References
Table Of Contents
From the California Psychology Internship Council (CAPIC)
From the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC)
Nov. 9, 2018: BBS has issued law changes that apply to existing supervisors and individuals who wish to supervise those pursuing licensure as a marriage and family therapist (LMFT), professional clinical counselor (LPCC), or clinical social worker (LCSW). For complete information, please see AB 93.
Oct. 1, 2017: The Board of Psychology (BOP) has issued a Verification of Experience Form and Supervision Agreement Regulation Advisory.
Purpose: California Code of Regulations, Title 16, sections 1387 and 1387.1 relating to supervision agreement, the verification of experience, and the responsibilities of the primary supervisor were amended effective October 1, 2017. See Verification of Experience Scenario Guide and Checklist, which includes a checklist to assist both the supervisor and supervisee to comply with the regulation changes relating to the Supervision Agreement and Verification of Experience.
Feb. 8, 2017: BOP 15 Day Notice of Modified Text
The Board of Psychology has issued a 15 Day Notice of Modified Text to its Verification of Experience and Supervision Agreement regulatory package.
Jan. 2017: BOP Changes
Summary of Changes Related to Psychological Assistants in CA
and also at
Legislative Advisories – Psychological Assistants
Jan 1, 2016: New CA law
Verification of Experience
Dec 1, 2015: New Option for Supervised Experience Categories
The Board has published a summary of new legislation, pertaining to LMFT and LPCC license candidates, enacted by California Senate Bill 620.
2013: Changes to Requirements for Associate Social Workers Supervisors
According to the BBS, “Effective April 1, 2013, a person supervising an associate clinical social worker (ASW) must have been licensed in California or another state for at least two years prior to beginning any supervision.”
2012: Maximum Number of Supervised Registrants
According to the ListServe feed from the Board of Behavioral Science in California, as of January 1, 2012, an eligible supervisor of a Marriage and Family Therapy intern (MFT intern), an associate clinical social worker (ASW), or a professional clinical counselor intern (PCC Intern) in a private practice setting may supervise or employ, at any one time, “no more than a total of three individuals registered as an MFT intern, ASW, or PCC Intern. A marriage and family therapy corporation, a licensed clinical social worker’s corporation, or a professional clinical counselor corporation may employ, at any one time, no more than a total of three individuals registered as an MFT intern, ASW, or PCC Intern for each employee or shareholder who has satisfied the requirements stipulated in law. Any of the previously mentioned corporations may not employ, at any one time, more than a total of 15 individuals registered as an MFT intern, ASW, or PCC Intern.
In no event shall any supervisor supervise, at any one time, more than a total of three individuals registered as either an MFT intern, ASW, or PCC Intern (SB 943, Chapter 350, Statutes of 2011).”
2012: According to the California Board of Behavioral Sciences, the following additions and revisions have been made with regard to the practice of Marriage and Family Therapist interns and trainees:
AB 956 (Chapter 166, Statutes of 2011) makes several changes in law regarding disclosures to patients, as well as advertisements for marriage and family therapy services. These changes will become effective on January 1, 2012.
The changes to the law are as follows:
1. Disclosure: Requires an unlicensed marriage and family therapist intern to provide each client or patient, prior to performing any professional services, with the following information (BPC §4980.44(c)): a. That he or she is an unlicensed marriage and family therapist registered intern (current law); b. His or her registration number (new provision); c. The name of his or her employer (new provision); and d. Indicate whether he or she is under the supervision of a licensed marriage and family therapist, licensed clinical social worker, licensed psychologist, or a licensed physician and surgeon certified in psychiatry by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (current law, but now the MFT intern must indicate the type of supervising licensee).
2. Advertising: Requires any advertisement by or on behalf of a marriage and family therapist intern must include, at a minimum, all of the following (BPC §4980.44(d)): a. That he or she is a marriage and family therapist registered intern; b. The intern’s registration number; c. The name of his or her employer; and d. That he or she is supervised by a licensed person.
1. Disclosure: Requires an MFT trainee to inform each client or patient, prior to performing any professional services, of the following (BPC §4980.48(a)): a. That he or she is an unlicensed marriage and family therapist trainee (current law); b. The name of his or her employer (new provision); c. Indicate whether he or she is under the supervision of a licensed marriage and family therapist, licensed clinical social worker, licensed psychologist, or a licensed physician certified in psychiatry by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (current law, but now the MFT trainee must indicate the type of supervising licensee).
2. Advertising: Requires any advertisement of services performed by a trainee must include, at a minimum, all of the following (BPC §4980.48(b) and (c)): a. Trainee’s name, and that he or she is a marriage and family therapist trainee; b. The name of his or her employer; and c. That he or she is supervised by a licensed person, and the supervisor’s license designation or abbreviation, and license number.
2010: Regulations for Psychological Assistants in Private Practice and a New Supervision Agreement Form
CPA has reminded Psychologists and Psychological Assistants that new Supervision Agreements are in place for use between Supervisors and Trainees. They note the following in Progress Notes:
In 2008, PROGRESS NOTES published proposed Board of Psychology regulations relevant to psychological assistants in private practice settings. In that article, PROGRESS NOTES advised psychologists who were involved in supervision to become familiar with those regulations. Those regulations went into effect on August 23, 2009 and PN is again providing this important information for supervisors and psychologists-in training. In part, the new regulations provide that (1) the supervision agreement must include an educational plan and, (2) the plan must be approved by the BOP prior to the start of SPE. In response to questions, the Board of Psychology has clarified that a psychological assistant registration that was approved prior to August 23, 2009 and has completed an old supervision agreement form will not need to complete a new supervision agreement form for prior approval on or after August 23, 2009. The Board will accept the old form as long as the registration was approved prior to August 23, 2009.
The following forms are copyrighted but may be of interest and are available from their authors:
Sample Supervision Contract Outline
Therapist Evaluation Checklist
Supervisor Evaluation Form
Psychology Trainee Evaluation of Supervision Competencies
Post-doctoral Supervisor Evaluation Form – The Kaiser Permanente Medical Group, Inc.
Resident Initial Self-Assessment Of Skills & Competencies – Kaiser Permanente North Bay Consortium
Competencies Quarterly Progress Report – Kaiser Permanente North Bay Consortium
Summary of professional organizations’ codes of ethics on Supervision
Accomplishments of the Work Group Focused on Human Diversity (2004) Report of the California Board of Psychology
From the California Board of Psychology
From the California Board of Behavioral Sciences
Marriage & Family Therapy:
Marriage and Family Therapist Trainee and Intern Supervision Information
Clinical Social Work:
ASW Registration Packet
States’ Regulations Of Supervision Of Psychotherapy, Counseling, Social Work
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Rousmaniere, T.G. & Renfo-Michele, E. (2015). Using Technology for Clinical Supervision: A Practical Handbook. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association Press.
Stokes, A. (2018). Online Supervision. London: Routledge
Strassle, C. G., et al. (2011). Video-tape role induction for psychotherapy: Moving forward. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 170-178. doi: 10.1037/a0022702
Stretch, L.S., Nagel, D.M. & Anthony, K. (2012). Ethical Framework for the Use of Technology in Supervision. Therapeutic Innovations in Light of Technology, 3(2), 37-45.
Unwin, T. (2007). “Reflections on Supervising Distance-based PhD Students.” Royal Holloway, University of London. www.gg.rhul.ac.uk/ict4d/distance-based%20PhDs.pdf
Weitz, P (2018). Supervision guidelines: online supervision and supervision online—what’s the difference? In A. Stokes (ed). Online supervision, (130-146) London: Routledge
Wisker, G. (2007). “Supervising Postgraduates: Internationally, and at a Distance.” In Connections: Sharing the Learning Space, edited by P. Wilcox, H. Jones, M. Sumner and E. Berrington, 23–28. Brighton, UK: Falmer Press.</
Wolf, A. W. (2011). Internet and video technology in psychotherapy supervision and training. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 179-181. doi: 10.1037/a0023532
Association of Addictions Professionals – NAADAC
International Certification & Reciprocity Consortium
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
The American Counseling Association
The Association for Counselor Education and Supervision
The National Board for Certified Counselors
For information associated with the National Certification for Addiction Counselorshttps://www.naadac.org/types-eligibility
TIP 50: Addressing Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Substance Abuse Treatment
https://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA13-4793/SMA13-4793.pdf In order to gain competency in the area of suicide assessment for those currently receiving Substance Abuse Treatment.
TIP 51: Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women
http://184.108.40.206/products/manuals/tips/pdf/TIP51.pdf (SMA) 09-4426
Self Care: A Guide for Addictions Professionals
For the maintenance of the health of the addictions professionals on the front line.
Chemical Dependency Counselor Candidate Handbook: 2010
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychological Association. (2007). Record keeping guidelines. American Psychologist, 62, 993–1004.
Anderson, Sandra, C. (2009). Substance Use Disorders in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clients: Assessment and Treatment. New York: Columbia University Press.
Belenko, S., Johnson, I. D., Taxman, F. S., & Rieckmann, T. (2016). Probation Staff Attitudes Toward Substance Abuse Treatment and Evidence-Based Practices. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.
Bernard, J. M. & Goodyear, R. K. (2013). Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision (5 Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Borders, L. D., & Brown, L. L. (2008). The New Handbook of Counseling Supervision (2 Ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Burke, P. A., Carruth, B., & Prichard, D. (2006). Counselor self-care in work with traumatized, addicted people. In Carruth, B. (Ed.). Psychological Trauma and Addiction Treatment (pp. 283–301). New York: Haworth Press.
Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2015). Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 15-4927, NSDUH Series H-50). Retrieved fromhttp://www.samhsa.gov/data/
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2005). Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction in Opioid Treatment Programs. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 43. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4214. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006). Addiction Counseling Competencies: The Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Professional Practice. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 21 (Rep. No. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 07-4243). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006a). Detoxification and Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 45. (HHS Publication No. SMA 06-4131). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006b). Substance Abuse: Administrative Issues in Intensive Outpatient Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 46. (HHS Publication No. SMA 06-4151). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2006c). Substance Abuse: Clinical Issues in Intensive Outpatient Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 47. (HHS Publication No. 06-4182). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2007). Competencies for Substance Abuse Treatment Clinical Supervisors. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 21-A (Rep. No. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 07-4243). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2008). Managing Depressive Symptoms in Substance Abuse Clients During Early Recovery. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 48. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009). Addressing Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 50. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009). Incorporating Alcohol Pharmacotherapies Into Medical Practice. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 49. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009). Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 51. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development a). Addressing Viral Hepatitis in People With Substance Use Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development b). Improving Cultural Competence in Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development c). Management of Chronic Pain in People With or in Recovery From Substance Use Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development d). Relapse Prevention and Recovery Promotion. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development e). Substance Abuse Treatment for Native Americans and Alaska Natives. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development f). Substance Abuse Treatment: Men’s Issues. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development g). Substance Abuse Treatment for People Who Are Homeless. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (in development h). Substance Abuse and Trauma. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Constantine, M. G. (2003). Multicultural competence in supervision: Issues, processes, and outcomes. In Pope-Davis, D. B., Coleman, H. L. K., Liu, W. M., & Toporek, R. L. (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Competencies: In Counseling & Psychology (pp. 383–391). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Cosden, M., Sanford, A., Koch, L. M., & Lepore, C. E. (2016). Vicarious trauma and vicarious posttraumatic growth among substance abuse treatment providers. Substance Abuse, 37, 4, 619-624.
Evans, E., Jaffe, A., Urada, D., & Anglin, M. D. (2012). Differential outcomes of court-supervised substance abuse treatment among California parolees and probationers. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56, 4, 539-56.
Guerrero, E. G., He, A., Kim, A., & Aarons, G. A. (2014). Organizational Implementation of Evidence-Based Substance Abuse Treatment in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 41, 6, 737-749.
Knudsen, H. K., Roman, P. M., & Abraham, A. J. (2013). Quality of clinical supervision and counselor emotional exhaustion: The potential mediating roles of organizational and occupational commitment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44, 5, 528-533.
Lambie, G. (2006). Burnout prevention: A humanistic perspective and structured group supervision activity. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 45, 32–44.
Laschober, T. C., de, T. E. L. T., & Sauer, J. B. (2012). Clinical supervisor and counselor perceptions of clinical supervision in addiction treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 31, 4, 382-8.
Lindbloom, G., Ten Eyck, T. G., & Gallon, S. L. (2004). Clinical Supervision I: Building Chemical Dependency Counselor Skills: Instructor Guide. Salem, Oregon: Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center.
Loganbill, C., Hardy, E., & Delworth, U. (1982). Supervision: A conceptual model. Counseling Psychologist, 10, 3–42.
Martino, S., Paris, M., Añez, L., Nich, C., Canning-Ball, M., Hunkele, K., Olmstead, T. A., … Carroll, K. M. (2016). The Effectiveness and Cost of Clinical Supervision for Motivational Interviewing: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 68, 2, 11-23.
Mattel, P. (2007). Designing and implementing clinical supervision. Unpublished manuscript.
NAADAC, The Association for Addiction Professionals (2003). NAADAC, The Association for Addiction Professionals Practitioner Services Network Year 2 Final Report: A Survey of Early Career Substance Abuse Counselors. Washington, DC: NAADAC, The Association for Addiction Professionals.
Olmstead, T. A., Abraham, A. J., Martino, S., & Roman, P. M. (2012). Counselor training in several evidence-based psychosocial addiction treatments in private US substance abuse treatment centers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 120, 1-3.
Oser, C. B. P. D., Biebel, E. P. P. D., Pullen, E. M. A., & Harp, K. L. H. M. A. (2013). Causes, Consequences, and Prevention of Burnout Among Substance Abuse Treatment Counselors: A Rural Versus Urban Comparison. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45, 1, 17-27.
Peters, R. H., Young, M. S., Rojas, E. C., & Gorey, C. M. (2017). Evidence-based treatment and supervision practices for co-occurring mental and substance use disorders in the criminal justice system. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 43, 4, 475-488.
Pope, K. S., Sonne, J. L., & Greene, B. (2006). What Therapists Don’t Talk About and Why: Understanding Taboos That Hurt Us and Our Clients. (2d ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Porter, J. & Gallon, S. L. (2006). Clinical Supervision II: Addressing Supervisory Problems in Addictions Treatment. Salem, OR: Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center.
Powell, D. J., & Brodsky, A. (2004). Clinical Supervision in Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counseling: Principles, Models, Methods. (Rev. Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ramsey, A. T., Baumann, A., Patterson, S. W. D., Yan, Y., Cooper, B., & Proctor, E. (2017). The need for data-informed clinical supervision in substance use disorder treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 36, 2.
Remley, T. P., & Herlihy, B. (2007). Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues in Counseling. (Updated 2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Roche, A. M., Todd, C. L., & O’Connor, J. (2007). Clinical supervision in the alcohol and other drugs field: An imperative or an option? Drug and Alcohol Review, 26, 241–249.
Rousmaniere, T., Abbass, A., & Frederickson, J. (2014). New Developments in Technology-Assisted Supervision and Training: A Practical Overview. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70, 11, 1082-1093.
Sacks, S., Chaple, M., Sirikantraporn, J., Sacks, J. A. Y., Knickman, J., & Martinez, J. (2013). Improving the capability to provide integrated mental health and substance abuse services in a state system of outpatient care. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44, 5, 488-493.
Schmidt, E. A., Ybañez-Llorente, K., & Lamb, B. C. (2013). Enhancing Supervision in the Addictions Field: Introducing the Supervisor Evaluation of the Professional and Ethical Competence of Substance Abuse Counselors. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 31, 1, 78-94.
Schmidt, E. A. (2012). Clinical supervision in the substance abuse profession: A review of the literature. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 30, 4, 487-504.
Smith, J. L., Carpenter, K. M., Amrhein, P. C., Brooks, A. C., Levin, D., Schreiber, E. A., Travaglini, L. A., … Nunes, E. V. (2012). Training substance abuse clinicians in motivational interviewing using live supervision via teleconferencing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 3, 450-64.
Tromski-Klingshirn, D. (2006). Should the clinical supervisor be the administrative supervisor? The ethics versus the reality, The Clinical Supervisor, 25, 53–67.
Tsounis, A., Sarafis, P., & Niakas, D. (2017). Social capital and job satisfaction among substance abuse treatment employees. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 12, 1, 1-11.
Tuten, L. M., Jones, H. E., & Schaeffer, C. M. (2011). Reinforcement-Based Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: A Comprehensive Behavioral Approach. Washington: American Psychological Association.
West, P. L., & Hamm, T. (2012). A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 33, 2, 66-81.
Williams, L. (1994). A tool for training supervisors: Using the supervision feedback form (SFF). Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 20, 311–315.
Social Work Organizations
“The Association of Social Work Boards is the nonprofit organization composed of and owned by the social work regulatory boards and colleges of all 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and all 10 Canadian provinces. We are the only nonprofit organization dedicated to social work regulation. Our mission is to provide support and services to the social work regulatory community to advance safe, competent, and ethical practices to strengthen public protection.
ASWB owns and maintains the social work licensing examinations that are used to test a social worker’s competence to practice ethically and safely. The Examination Committee meets up to four times a year to review questions for the exams. Exams are administered throughout the year at secure test centers in North America and abroad.
The association developed and maintains a model practice act that offers regulatory bodies a resource for developing their own laws and regulations. Other member board services include the ACE program for approved continuing education, CE audit contract services, license application and issuance contract services, the Public Protection Database, and Look Up a License. The association holds two meetings annually for its membership, the Association Education Conference and the Annual Meeting of the Delegate Assembly in the fall. New Board Member Training sessions and Administrator Workshop training sessions are held regularly. Association publications include a bimonthly electronic newsletter, the Association News. In partnership with CSWE-accredited schools of social work, ASWB offers an educational initiative, Path to Licensure, designed to strengthen student and faculty knowledge of professional regulation and its important connection to public protection and social work values and ethics.”
The California BBS site details steps and requirements for social worker’s pursuing associate clinical social worker (ASW) or licensed clinical social worker (LCSW) status.
CalSWEC is a coalition of social work educators and practicioners. The organization focuses on social work pedagogy items such as access, scholarship, curriculum, evaluation and research.
“Founded in 1952, the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) is the national association representing social work education in the United States. Its members include over 750 accredited baccalaureate and master’s degree social work programs, as well as individual social work educators, practitioners, and agencies dedicated to advancing quality social work education. Through its many initiatives, activities, and centers, CSWE supports quality social work education and provides opportunities for leadership and professional development, so that social workers play a central role in achieving the profession’s goals of social and economic justice. CSWE’s Commission on Accreditation is recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation as the sole accrediting agency for social work education in the United States and its territories.”
“Founded in 1955, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) is the largest membership organization of professional social workers in the world, with more than 120,000 members. NASW works to enhance the professional growth and development of its members, to create and maintain professional standards, and to advance sound social policies.”
This is a website for perspective social work students, to assist in navigating the social work education system based on geography and area of interest. Additional information/ linkage to state sites regarding licensure pursuit.
Association of Social Work Boards. (2009). An Analysis of Supervision for Social Work Licensure: Guidelines on Supervision for Regulators and Educators. Culpeper, VA: ASWB.
Beddoe, L. (2012). External Supervision in Social Work: Power, Space, Risk, and the Search for Safety. Australian Social Work, 65(2), 197–213. https://doi.org/10.1080/0312407X.2011.591187
Chiller, P., & Crisp, B. (2012). Professional Supervision: A Workforce Retention Strategy for Social Work? Australian Social Work, 65(2), 232–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/0312407X.2011.625036
Dewane, C.J. (2007). Supervisor, Beware: Ethical Dangers in Supervision. Social Work Today, Vol. 7 (4), 34.
Feller, T., & van, B. A. (January 01, 2014). Social work students’ experience and management of countertransference. Social Work, 50, 4, 469-484. http://dx.doi.org/10.15270/50-4-386
Gilbert, C. and Maxwell, C.F. (2011). Clinical Supervision in Healthcare in the Internet Era. Social Work Today, 11(2), p. 24.
Maynard, S. P., Mertz, L. K. P., & Fortune, A. E. (2015). Off-Site Supervision in Social Work Education: What Makes It Work? Journal of Social Work Education, 51(3), 519–534. https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2015.1043201
National Association of Social Workers. (2017).mn Code of ethics. Retrieved April 21, 2019, from https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English
Smith, M. (2017). Looking into the Seeds of Time. Visual Imagery in Macbeth and Its Relevance to Social Work Practice, Supervision and Research. Journal of Social Work Practice, 31(2), 121–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650533.2017.1298577
Wilkins, D., Forrester, D., & Grant, L. (2017). What happens in child and family social work supervision? Child & Family Social Work, 22(2), 942–951. https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12314